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The Jesuits are charged with practicing witchcraft

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Roger Williams pushed the principle that Indian religion was as equally acceptable to God
as Christianity was, and even the free thinking puritans considered it heresy.


Three marriages, twenty one births and two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France. The New France colony now totaled some two hundred and forty people. Others suggest Kebec population was 355. An unofficial census of New France recorded 375 people. The first count must only include Fort Kebec and area. Others suggest the total population of New France only numbered 359, this sounds like La Tour head count of Acadia?.

Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    Goujet et Gouget, Catherine (1616-1679) possible Métis/Indian, married 1640 Trois Rivieres (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683)

(I)-Claude Aubert et Auber (1614-1694) see 1619 married Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English, married about 1640 Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680)
    (II)-Felix Aubert b-1642 d-1690 Chateau Richer married 1670 Chateau Richer Claire FrancoiseThibaut
    (II)-Marie Aubert b-1649 Kebec d-1715 Quebec married 1663 Chateau Richer Jean Premont
    (II)-Genevieve Aubert (1651-1732) Quebec married Denis Roberge
    (II)-Elizabeth Aubert b-1654 Quebec 1st married 1671 Chateau Richer Bernard Chesne; 2nd marriage 1683 Quebec Jean Baptiste Franquelin
    (II)-Anne Aubert (1656-1728) Quebec married 1683 Quebec Gervais Baudouin

Kebec birth (II)-Jeanne Auber died Batiscan December 8, 1687, daughter (I)-Francois Auber (leader of a boat) and Anne Fauconner; married 1681 Jacques Dubois

(II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) at age 18 went to live with the Huron until 1644

(II)-Zacharie Cloutier, b-1616, died February 3, 1708 Chateau Richer son (I)-Zacharie Cloutier b-1590 and Xainte Dupont (1596-1680) who arrived Kebec before 1637; married about 1640 likely Kebec? Madeleine Barbe Aymard, b-1626, died May 28, 1708, Chateau Richer daughter Jean Aymard and Marie Bureau
    (III)-Barbe Cloutier b-1650 Quebec d-1711 Chateau Richer married 1st 1663 Chateau Richer Charles Belanger; 2nd married 1705 Chateau Richer Noel Gagnon
    (III)-Rene Cloutier b-1651 Chateau Richer, d-1713 married Marie Leblanc
    (III)-Xainie Cloutier b-1653 Chateau Richer 1st married 1672 Chateau Richer Nicolas Goulet; 2nd married 1681 Nicolas Thibaut
    (III)-Genevieve Cloutier b-1655 Quebec married 1674 Chateau Richer Joseph Guyon
    (III)-Madeleine Cloutier b-1657 Quebec 1st married 1676 Chateau Richer Pierre Gravelle; 2nd married 1679 Chateau Richer Jean Bouchard
    (III)-Marie Cloutier b-1659 married 1684 Chateau Richer Jean Gravelle
    (III)-Charles Cloutier b-1662 Chateau Richer married 1685 Chateau Richer Anne Tibaut
    (III)-Pierre Cloutier b-1666 Chateau Richer married 1687 Chateau Richer Charlotte Guyon

(I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture), (1617-1701) arrived Kebec.

(I)-Francois Girouard, b-1621 arrived Acadia 1740, married Jeanne Aueoin, b-1631.

(I)-Louis Marchand married about 1640 Francoise Morineau; 7 children born 1644 to 1666 but only know to be in New France 1669 for sure?

(II)-Catherine Le Neuf, b-1640 Trois Revieries daughter (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie, b-1606 and (II)-Marguerite Le Gardieur, b-1608, died 1697: married August 23, 1655, Kebec, Pierre Denis. Possible son (I)-Pierre St. Denis who arrived Kebec 1619 and therefore possibly Métis? Brother (II)-Michel Le Neuf was born October 31, Trois Rivieres, died 1721 Quebec who married about 1666 (II)-Francois Denis. Catherine Le Neuf is listed born unknown? Also sister Marie b-1632 possible adoptees?

(I)-Jean Parisien married about 1640 Trois Rivieres Francoise Sauvagesse
    (II)-Mathurin Parisien Métis b-1641, baptized 1644 Trois Rivieres

(II)-Marie Pasquier (1640-1685) born Kebec daughter (I)-Pierre Pasquier de Franclieu and Marie de Porta; married January 10, 1668 (II)-Charles Thomas Couillard Métis, died May 8, 1715 St. Etienne de Beaumont epouse 1688 (II)-Louise Couture

(II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) commanded 359 people in Acadia and (I)-Menou D'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) of Acadia could field 200 men, during the Acadian civil war, more than the total of New France.

(I)-Pierre Vachon, d-1640, Kebec

Some believe that many early French traders took Huron (Wendat) women for wife seeking short term personal gratification, trade advantages and did not expect their obligations to be permanent. The Métis children were absorbed into the matriarchal society and adopted the Huron culture. The Huron would not yield orphaned youngsters to French care as they were a cruel people using corporal punishment as discipline and as a teaching aid. The destruction of the Huron confederacy in 1649 drove these unrecorded Métis west and most were permanently separated from their French fathers. Subsequent history does not support this opinion. The French fathers likely did not abandoned their Huron wives but were likely separated due to the Iroquois war.

The Jesuits were approached secretly in Sillery by young Indian girl converts to find them suitable husbands.

At the General Assembly of the Huron Nation, the Council again openly debated the execution of the Jesuits or at least the driving of them back to the St. Lawrence Valley, for bringing disease to the minds and bodies of the People. Many Huron Villages had already closed their gates to the Jesuits. Women would run and hide their children at the approach of the Jesuits.

The Iroquois group of five nations, unlike the Algonquian, are intense farmers. The Huron (Wendat) are a part of the Iroquois family, but has aligned with the Algonquian culture. They are in constant conflict with the Iroquois. The center of the conflict, at this time, is that the Iroquois traded with the Dutch through Hudson River and the Huron (Wendat) with the French by the St. Lawrence river, and both acted as merchants in the fur trade. The French believed the Dutch and English were behind the Iroquois' stirring up of trouble and selling them guns. The Iroquois source of supply, however, is dwindling, whereas the Huron (Wendat) trade is flourishing. Unknown to the French, the Huron (Wendat) are the middlemen to the Ojibwa and Cree to the West. The Iroquois began attacking the French settlements, striking down the farmers in the field, burning their homes, barns and wheat fields.

The French noted that Natives show in sickness, astonishing patience and gentleness and most pious devotion. Accustomed to divide with one another their food, they also think it necessary to share their medicine. The Huron (Wendat), however, noted that the black robes caused death wherever they went. In some villages they visit, everyone except three or four died. The black robes moved and the same thing happened again. They visited the cabins of other cities, and only those into which they did not enter have been exempted from illness or death.

The Jesuits (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (1611-1693) traveled from the Huron Mission in the present Township of Medonte, near Penetanguishene, (Ontario) to the Indian Village Onguiara near Queenston (Ontario). This highly annoyed the Huron (Wendat) who accused the Blackrobes of attempting to bypass them in trade. The Jesuit Order attempted to exclude the Recollets and Huguenots from New France. They firmly believed that the real enemies were the Dutch, English and the Huguenots.

By 1640, the Iroquois have swept away the Jesuits, Huron (Wendat), and nearly destroyed the French trading colony. The first official census listed 375 people in New France.

The French Company of One Hundred Associates, that was effectively created by Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642) is on the verge of bankruptcy. It had been founded to control the fur trade and to keep protestants out of New France, founded on a church principle of absolutism.

The Jesuits, before the purge, could only count about 100 converts from the 16,000 Wendat (Huron), and these were mostly sick infants or aged persons who died soon after baptism. Where ever the Jesuit went death soon followed. Sillery, Kebec the major mission of the Jesuit only contained 35-40 families.

Many Huron believe the Jesuit have a secret league with the Hiroquois (Iroquois) likely because they baptized a few Hiroquois.

Father (I)-Jean Brebeuf (1593-1649) visited the Neutral Nation (Iroquois) and entered into secret treaty. He was denounced as a traitor full of treachery, on all sides. He denied that he did but others presented evidence that he was lying. The Jesuit Order fearing for his life recalled him to Kebec until things cooled down.

The Church of Kebec is burned and destroyed by fire, together with the house of the Jesuit Fathers.

The death of (I)-Issac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1635/36) threw Acadia into turmoil, as (I)-Charles de Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650), Nicolas Denys and (II)-Charles of Saint Etienne de La Tour (1595-1665) divided the governing of Acadia and all claimed exclusive rights to trade. A civil war broke out and didn't end until (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) killed? Charles d'Aulnay de Charinsay (1605-1650) and married his widow Madame Motin.

The Micmac scoffed at the notion of French superiority. They reasoned that if Christian civilization was so wonderful, why were its inhabitants leaving? In France, governments were harsh and the rule of law arbitrary. Famines, disease and death rampaged. The French were just plain dirty, physically weak, and sexually untrustworthy.

The Association for the Colony of Ville-Marie (Montreal. Quebec) is formed, headed by the founders  Jerome le Royer de la Dauversiere, Receiver of Taxes at la Fleche, in Anjou; and Father Jean Jacques Olier de Vemeuil, a young Sulpican priest of Paris.

The Jesuit say; nearly all the barbarians (Huron, Algonquian and Iroquois) desire the Jesuit death, as passionately as they crave the preservation of their own lives; in their speech they talk of nothing but slaughtering us, that was an ordinary theme of their Councils, so reported the Jesuits.

A ship arrived Acadia with 25 men and 5 women.

(I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture), (1617-1701) departed Trois Rivieres with Jésuit priests (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), (I)-Rene Goupil (1608-1642), and 19 Huron Indians. In the vicinity of lake Saint-Pierre, the small convoy was attacked by a group of about 80 Iroquois and are taken prisoner by the Iroquois

January 9: Kebec, marriage (I)-Noel Morin, (1616-1680) to (II)-Helene Des Portes either daughter b-1620 or sister (1601-1675) of (I)-Pierre Des Portes and Francoise Langlois (1599-1629), epouse October 1, 1634, (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Métis, b-1606 d-1639.  This family is very confusing, I suspect if we dug deeper we would find Métis but I will assume no to Métis and let the decendents determine that.
    They had 12 kids, 8 born Kebec, 4 born Quebec

February 14: Kebec, birth (II)-Paul Selle son (I)Jacques Selle dit de L'espine to (I)-Marie Berard dit Lepine b-1619

April 11: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 testified in court as a witness.

April 30: Sillery, birth (II)-Nicolas Peltier dit Marolles Métis, died December 2, 1729, Tadoussac, son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier and Jeanne Roussy Métis/Indian (1622-1689);
1st married June 22, 1673 Quebec Madeleine Tegoussi (Montagnaise) sauvagess, widow of d'Augustie sauvage;
    (III)-Marie Jeanne Pelletier et Peltier Métis b-1676 Sorel
2nd marriage June 3, 1677, Tadoussac, Francoise Ouechipichinokoue, Algonguin; Marriage #2 produced two Métis children and they produced 10 Métis children.
     (III)-Nicolas Peletier Métis
     (III)-Francois Peltier Métis
3th marriage (II)-Francoise Lamy, daughter (I)-Isaac Lamy;
     (III)-Marie Genevieve Pelletier et Peltier Métis married 1704 Ste Foye Pierre Janson
4rd marriage August 5, 1715, Quebec, Marie Anne Outchiouanich Nanabesa; Sillery is an Indian reservation so it is highly likely he is a Métis

May 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Peltier, Métis b-1640 Kebec, died November 9, 1713, Quebec, daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, Métis/Indian b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married November 17, 1653, Quebec, (II)-Jean Hayot, they had 10 Métis children

May 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francois Crevier Métis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Métis or sauvagesse b-1619

May 17: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Marsolet, Métis, died April 19, 1712, Kebec, daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Métis, (1620-1688) epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre: married October 20, 1653, Kebec, Jean Lemire

May 24: Father (I)-Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (Chaumonnot, Calvonotti) (1611-1693) wrote; The Missionaries have been frequently persecuted, but non have yet perished. Pierre is fully aware that the Algonquin, Huron and Iroquois all have the Jesuit under Assembly, Council or Grand Council orders to be executed for their evil deeds.

June 24: An Englishman arrived Sault Saint Louis and River des Prairies.The first rapid found in the great river St. Lawrence, which we call "sault saint Louis,": we come to another stream crossed the "River des Prairies. This river is thus named after a Frenchman called des Prairies. This Englishman had one servant and 20 Abnaquiois, who reside between the Acadian Sea and the St. Lawrence River, in canoes to search for the Northern Sea. He had spent two years following the coast from Virginia to New Mexico attempting to find the route to the North Sea (likely looking for the Mississippi River) but had failed to do so. The French at this time believed the route to the North Sea is via Lake Superior based upon (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) account. The Frenchman was refused permission to venture to Fort Kebec and told to return from whence he came. He said he was unable to do so as the streams were dried up. He requested and received permission to go to Tadoussac (Quebec) to find voyage back to England.

May 26: 1640 or 1641 Kebec death by drowning (I)-Adrien D'Abancour dit Lacaille  and (II)-Etienne Sevestre see 1636 and May 26,1641 Kebec

June 27: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Jacques Boissel son (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697)

June 30: Tadoussac, (Quebec) three ships arrived, the Esperance 90 tonnage captain Savinien Courpon de la Tour, the Saint Jacques, captain Ancflot and an unnamed ship captain Cabot. Other ships arrived July/August but the numbers and names are unknown.

July 1: Kebec, (I)-Noel Desnoyers, a carpenter of the Ursulines arrived and died July 3, 1640, Kebec.

July 26: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Hayot daughter (I)-Thomas Hayot and Jeanne Boucher: 1st married October 28, 1652, Quebec, Etienne Tenevert: 2nd marriage Leonard Dubord.

July 29: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620.

July/August: An unknown number of ships landed Kebec.

August 7: In Paris, the Island of Montreal, (Quebec) passed into the hands of Jerome Le Rouer (Royer), sieur de la Dauversiere, Sieur de La Dauversiere and Pierre Chevrier, Baron de Fancamp to set the stage for the Montreal Company or Society of Notre Dame of Montreal. Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) is to be the new Governor of the Ville Marie of Montreal. The Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement, formed in 1639; a secret society of Counter-Reformation zealots in France, is the prime mover. Father Jean Jacques Olier is also a founding member.

August 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Charles Belanger, died December 15, 1692 Chateau Richer, son (I)-Francis Belanger b-1612 and (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696): married November 21, 1663 Chateau Richer, Barbe Clouter

September 2: Kebec marriage (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) to Catherine Goujet (1616-1679)
    (II)-Marie Madeleine Bonhomme (1641-1642) Kebec
    (II)-Marie Madeleine Bonhomme (1641-1642) Kebec
    (II)-Guillaume Bonhomme b-1643 Kebec 1st married 1664 Quebec (II)-Francoise Hachee d-1710, 2nd married 1704 Marie Therese Piron
    (II)-Ignace Bonhomme b-1647, d-1711 Ste Foye, 1st married 1671 Quebec (II)Agnes Morin d-1687, 2nd marriage 1690 (II)-Anne Poirier
    (II)-Marie Bonhomme b-1648 Kebec married 1661 Quebec (I)-Jean Nau (1642-1699)
    (II)-Parie Bonhomme (1650-1670) Kebec
    (II)-Nicolas Bonhomme b-1653 Quebec married 1676 Quebec (II)-Marie Therese Levasseur
    (II)-Catherine Bonhomme b-1655 Quebec married 1670 Jacques Bertheume et Bertheome (1632-1707)

September 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Etienne Sedilot, died November 10, 1688, Quebec, son (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier: married August 11`, 1664, Quebec, Madeleine Carbonnet.

September 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Martin, Métis, daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage; married 1st February 6, 1653, Quebec,  Nicolas Froget, 2nd marriage February 1, 1681, Repentigny, Jean Baptiste Fonteneau

September 14: Kebec, death Marguerite Petitpas who married (I)-Etienne Sevestre


      (II)-Etienne Sevestre died May 2, 1640, Kebec, drowned with Adrien D'Abancour.
     (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Quebec, married 1627, Marie Pichon
     (II)-Jacques Sevestre, died June 12, 1685, Quebec

September 30: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Racine, Métis, child of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Métis (1624-1679)

October 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Bourdon, Métis, died 1660 Quebec, son (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Métis, d-1654.

October 22: Kebec, marriage (I)-Claude Etienne, b-1610 married (II)-Helene Martin Métis, born June 21, 1627, daughter (I)-Abraham Martin (1589-1664) and Huron girl;
    (II)-Martin Etienne Métis (1644-1644) Kebec

October 31: Trois Rivieres, birth, (II)-Michel Le Neuf, son (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie, b-1606 and (II)-Marguerite Le Gardieur, b-1608, died 1697: married Marie Francoise Denis

November: (I)-Pierre Pijart, Jesuit is in the Tabacco Nation.

December 4: Trois Rivieres, birth/death (II)-Ignace Nicolet son (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) and (II)-Marguerite Couillard 

December 17: The Hundred Associates agreed to grant Montreal Island to the Society of Notre Dame of Montreal, except for the mountain and an area to the southeast, and added the seignior of St. Sulpice.



Three marriages, sixteen births and eight deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    (II)-Marguerie, Marie most likely a Indian/Métis (1620/26-1700) daughter (I)-Francois Marguerie and Marthe Roman claimed to be early residence of Trois Rivieres; 1st married 1641 Trois Rivieres (I)-Jacques Hertel b-1603 d-1651 captured and believed killed by the Iroquois; 2nd married 1652 Trois Rivieres (I)-Quentin Moral et Morel de St Quentin (1620/22-1686/89)

Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Brossard b-1641, died December 21, 1709 Quebec daughter (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.: married February 7, 1656 Kebec Jacques Hedouin

Guillaume Des Chesnes, Voyage Couillard dit Des Chesnes, en 1641.

(I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers, (1618/21-1696), pilote, arrived Kebec, 1641, explorer, fur trader, married 1st. September 3, 1647, Kebec (II)-Helene Martin, 2n marriage August 24, 1653, Quebec, (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, was involved in 31 court cases at Trois Rivieres and was resentful on the injustices at the hands of French officials. He and his brother-in-law (II)-Pierre Esprit Radisson, Métis, (1632-1710) helped found the Hudson Bay Company. (II)-Pierre is listed as (II)-Marguerite's half sister. (see Radisson 1631) 

Monsieur de Courpon is admiral of the fleet of New France (Canada). Sieur Maisonneuve his surgeon is given to the New Colony of Montreal.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Métis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Métis or sauvagesse b-1619; married 1664 Trois Rivieres, Louise Leloutre, b-1648

Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Hayot born likely 1641 or earlier, Kebec son (I)-Thomas Hayot and Jeanne Boucher: married November 17, 1653 Quebec, Louise Pelletier.

(I)-Charles Lemoyne of Longueuil, et of Chateauguay b-1624 arrived Kebec this year. He would marry 1654 Montreal, a 13 year old orphan named Catherine Primot, b-1641 whose real name is Catherine Tierry daughter Guillaume Tierry and Elizabeth Messier.

(II)-Marie Anne Le Neuf, b-1641/42 likely Trois Revieries daughter (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie, b-1606 and (II)-Marguerite Le Gardieur, b-1608, died 1697

(I)-Paul De Maisonneuve a noble of Chomeday, arrived New France 1641.

(I)-Jeanne Mance, b-1607, died June 19, 1673, Montreal, arrived Kebec this year.

The Pelletier brothers arrived Quebec; (I)-Guillaume Pelletier (1598-1657) and wife Michelle Mable (1592-1665) and brother (I)-Antoine Pelletier d-1647 drowned when his canoe capsized at Montmorency Falls

(I)-Francois Petit Pre a Jesuit engage is at Trois Rivieres this year

Some historians consider a colony of 240 people in 106 years since discovery as hardly representing a commitment by France towards New France.

(I)-Andre Bernard, b-1620, France arrived Acadia to work at Jemseg, Saint John River, (New Brunswick). Fort Jemseg fell in 1645 and Andre was expelled to France but he returned later. He married 1st about 1642 Kebec? an Indian; married 2nd Marie Andree Guyon (1618-1696)? daughter Francois Guyon. The Guyon clan arrived 1619. Marie Andree Guyon (1618-1696)? is recorded married 1637 Kebec, (I)-Charles Belanger b-1612 who arrived Kebec 1619.
     TWO CHILDREN ARE RECORD as children of (I)-Andre Bernard and Indian Woman
     (II)-Michel Nicolas Bernard, Métis b-1662 and married Margurite Indian (1649-1671)
     (II)-Rene Bernard, Métis b-1663
     If this is correct this marriage likely occurred 1661? It's also possible he had two Indian wives?

Nicolas Giffar is working among the Huron for the Jesuit.

Ste Famille marriage (I)-Pierre Paradis (1605-1675) married about 1641 to (II)-Barbe Guyon Métis (1620-1700) daughter (I)-Jean Guyon d-1663 and Mathurine Robin Métis d-1662
    (II)-Marie Paradis Métis b-1642 married 1656 Quebec (I)-Guillaume Bauche (1630-1687)
    (II)-Marie Anne Paradis b-1681 d-1738 married about 1698 (II)-Francois Lemieux b-1676 This is an obvious error. Daughter (II)-Guillaume Paradis
    (II)-Jacques Paradis Métis b-1646 married 1668 Quebec (II)-Jeanne Milloy et Millouer
    (II)-Guillaume Paradis Métis b-1648 married 1670 Quebec Genevieve Milloy et Millouer
    (II)-Pierre Paradis Métis b-1651 married Jeanne Francoise (II)-LeRoy
    (II)-Madeleine Paradis Métis b-1653 Quebec
    (II)-Marie Madeleine Paradis Métis b-1655 Quebec d-1684, married 1674 (II)-Robert Choret
    (II)-Jean Paradis Métis b-1658 Quebec d-1697 Charlesbourg, 1st married 1674 Claude Damize; 2nd marriage 1679 Quebec (III)-Jeanne Pasque d-1711
    (II)-Louise Paradis Métis b-1661 Quebec 1st married 1678 (II)-Thomas Mezeray; 2nd marriage 1691 Quebec (I)-Hylaire Sureau; 3rd married 1713 Montreal Jean Baptiste Jarry Lahaie.

(II)-Mathurin Parisien, Métis b-1641, baptized 1644 Trois Rivieres (Quebec) son (I)-Jean Parisien and Francoise Sauvagesse.

(II)-Jean Poirier arrived Acadia son (I)-Jean Poirier

The resident population of New France is two hundred and forty French, increased by 70 with the arrival of (I)-Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) and (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673)- all committed to sacrificing their lives in the service of God and their fellow man. These religious zealots would go on to establish Ville-Marie (Mountain of Montreal). Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), based on others advice, considered the project insane. They dubbed the project 'The Foolish (Absurd) Enterprise'.

(I)-Charles Le Moyne of Longueuil (1626-1685) arrived New France to work for the Jesuit in Huron Country. It is believed that (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618/21-1696) also arrived in New France as a servant of the Jesuit whom he remained indentured to until 1646.

The Puritans of Massachusetts established the Body of Liberties and the General Fundamentals of the Plymouth Colony. Liberty included jury trial, no taxation without representation, free elections, no one deprived of life, liberty or property- save by due process of law or those compelled to incriminate themselves. Torture and cruel and barbarous punishment are prohibited. Foreigners are assured equal protection of the law, and cruelty to animals is forbidden. As to cruelty to wives, a husband is forbidden to beat his wife unless in his own defense upon her assault. It is small wonder that the Jesuits would consider these English as more evil than the savage barbarians.

The Iroquois formally declared war against the French.

There are only an estimated 120 French settlers in all of Nova Scotia (Acadia). I am not sure if the same rules apply here as in New France a settler is one who is married and has children, not those married to indigenous women.

Fort Richelieu (Sorel, Kebec) is built this year.

St. Joseph de Sillery, Kebec is established with some 30 families, but is soon abandoned due to its vulnerability to Iroquois attacks. Some held out until 1655/56 when the Iroquois raids and fire finally destroyed the village.

(I)-Thomas Godfroy, Sieur de Normnville (d-1652) of Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) is captured by the Iroquois, but released later this year during peace negotiations. The Iroquois would later kill him in 1652.

(I)-Paul de Chromedey, sieur de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) with 40 Frenchmen began the construction of the Ville-Marie (Montreal) settlement.

It is reported in Paris that a vessel laden with girls (bound for New France) whose virtue had not the approval of any doctor; the Jesuit claim this is a false report. It is not stated if their virtue in question is not correct or if the vessel laden with girls is not correct. It is possible the exporting of the Kings Daughters started earlier than is commonly believed.

The Ursuline nuns wrote that the savages who were not christans were considered by them to be very stupid. The Augustinian nuns marveled that in the hospitals not even a slight quarrel has arisen, although the savages were in great pain. Those savages not once complained.

January 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Agnes Drouin, died November 8, 1641, Kebec son (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) and (II)-Anne Cloutier, died February 3, 1648, Kebec

February: Jesuits (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumont (Chaumonnot, Calvonotti) (1611-1693) returned to Ste Marie among the Huron from a visit to the Neutral Indians at Lake Erie.

February 10: L'Ange-Gardien, marriage (II)-Antoine Trudel, died Nay 22, 1701, Montreal to (II)-Madeleine Gariepy, died November 17, 1695, Montreal.

February 12: Francois Marguerie and Thomas Godefroy is captured by the Hiroquois, (Iroquois) they are taken 17-18 days journey south, they are treated like the Savages own children. The Dutch provided clothing and other necessities to the prisoners. They were released later at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) during peace discussions.

February 13: (I)-Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) requested the return to France and the revoking of the commission of (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665). La Tour disobeyed and remained in Acadia. Thus started the Acadian civil war.

February 24: Kebec, birth, (II)-Jean Langlois, Métis, died August 26, 1687, Quebec son (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: married October 19, 1665, Chateau Richer, Francoise Belanger 

March 6, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jacques Godfroy, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, (1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf b-1612-1688);

April 6: Kebec, birth (II)-Nicolas Couillard, Métis died June 24, 1661, Quebec, son (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Métis (1606-1684);

May 9: Two ships with settlers for Ville-Marie (Montreal) departed France. Among the passengers are (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) and Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676)- the new Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal).

May 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Noel Boisse, died May 20, 1721 Quebec, son (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697): Married July 23, 1669, Quebec, Marie Morin

May 21: Kebec (I)-Francois De Re de Gand is chief of police in Kebec, died May 21, 1641.

May 26: Kebec death by drowning (1)-Adrien D'Abancour dit Lacaille with (II)-Etienne Sevestre see 1636
married to Simon d'Orgeville (1589-1649) who was in Kebec with her husband in 1635.   d'Orgeville is in Northern France.
    (II)-Simone D'Orgeville dit D'Abancour b-1589 d-1649 Kebec
    (II)-Marie D'Abancour dite La Caille b-1618 1st married 1639 Kebec (I)-Jean Joliet (1574-1651); 2nd married 1651 Quebec Godefroy Guillot dit Lavalet; 3rd married 1665 Quebec (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691)

May 27: A Great Fur Market is conducted at Trois Rivieres (Quebec).

June: Four ships arrive Kebec, the Gaston 100t captain G. Joubert, the Rene captain N. Pernet and unknowns.

June: Kebec, four ships arrived, the Gaston of 100 tonnage captain G. Joubert, the Rene 100 tonnage captain N. Pernet, two unnamed ships and a 5th ship arrived August with the first settlers for Ville-Marie (Montreal).

August 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Boucher daughter (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Quebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687); married January 12, 1655 Chateau Richer Louis Houde

August 8: (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) arrived in New France.

August 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Gagnon, died May 24, 1699, Quebec daughter (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620. Married April 26, 1654, Quebec, Jean Chapeleau.

August 23: Trois Rivieres, contract for marriage (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) he was in Kebec 1629-1633 living among the savages and married Marie Marguerie Indian/Métis (1620/26-1700), a Filles a Marier possible daughter (I)-Marguerie [see May 21, 1634] epouse, (I)-Moral de St. Quentin (1620/22-1686/89). Tanguay attributes three children to this marriage but some say the inventory dated August 21, 1651 lists no children to (I)-Jacques.  Marie Marguerie (1620/26-1700) arrived 1641 under contract to marry (I)-Jacques Hertel also see 1633 Hertel it's likely he or her father (I)-Francois Marguerie sent Marie Marguerie to France for education.  (I)-Francois Marguerie is likely a sauvage or Métis himself and he was in Kebec 1629-1633 living among the savages.
    (II)-Francois Hertel Métis b-1642 Trois Rivieres d-1722 Boucherville married 1664 Montreal Marguerite De Thauvenet b-1646
    (II)-Marie Madeleine Hertel Métis b-1645 Trois Rivieres married 1658 Trois Rivieres (I)-Louis Pinar (1636-1695)
    (II)-Marguerite Hertel Métis b-1649 Trois Rivieres married 1663 Trois Rivieres (II)-Jean Crevier dit Duvernay Tanguay list he had three children after August 21, 1651 this must refer to (I)-Jacques Hertel?  

August 20: So as not to lose perspective, the Huron Christian Church only contained 60 zealots.

September 2: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Racine, Métis, died January 5, 1675 Chateau Richer, daughter of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Métis (1624-1679); married November 10, 1653, Quebec, Simon Guyon

September 3: Kebec, marriage (II)-Francois Boucher, Métis b-1626 son (I)-Martin Boucher (1589-1671) [who arrived Kebec 1619 and married 1625] and Julienne Barry (Baril) most likely Métis or Sauvage; married Florence Gareman, b-1629
    (III)-Jean Boucher Métis b-1643 Kebec
    (III)-Elizabeth Boucher Métis (1646-1685) Kebec, married 1659 Quebec (II)-Denis (Denys) Guyon (1632-1685)
    (III)-Pierre Boucher dit Deroche Métis b-1648 Sillery married 1672 (II)-Helene Gaudry (1656-1712)
    (III)-Martin Boucher Métis b-1650 Sillery
    (III)-Marie Boucher Métis b-1652 Sillery, d-171x Pointe-aux-Trembles married 1670 (I)-Antoine Chaudillon b-1643
    (III)-Florence Boucher Métis b-1654 Kebec
    (III)-Anonyme Boucher Métis b-1654 Kebec
    (III)-Charles Boucher Métis b-1658 Kebec, married 1685 Sorel Marguerite (III)-Agnes Pelletier b-1666
    (III)-Denis Boucher dit Dearosiers Métis b-1660 Sillery, married 1689 Quebec (III)-Jeanne Miville(1671-1744)
    (III)-Michel Boucher Métis b-1661 Sillery, married 1695 (II)-Marie Madeleine Hout b-1670
    (III)-Francoise Boucher Métis b-1664 Sillery, married 1686 Chateau (II)-Richer Nicolas Thibault d-1727 Terrebonne
    (III)-Michel Boucher Métis (1666-1713) married 1700 St Augustin (IV)-Genevieve Amyot dit Neuville b-1683

September 20: Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), the new Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal), arrived in New France.

September 25: Kebec, marriage (I)-Rene Mezeray aka Mezler, (1611-1695) to Helene Chastel; 2nd marriage Francoise Milot, died April 5, 1703, Pointe-aux-Trembles, espouse September 30, 1697, Quebec, Leonard Durord dit Lajeunesse; 3rd marriage October, 1645 Kebec, (II)-Nicole Gareman.

September 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Maheu, died October 19, 1641 Kebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Maheu, d-1663 and Anne Convent, epouse 1627, France (I)-Philippe Amiot and epouse September 10, 1666 Quebec, Etienne Blanchon

October 6: Kebec, marriage (I)-Antoine Damien, b-1611 to Marie Joly, b-1623 

October 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Langlois, Métis, died August 26, 1687, Quebec son (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec. No marriage contract was found. (Francoise could be a Native or Métis? but most likely a sauvagesse): married October 19, 1665, Chateau Richer,  Francoise Belanger

October 14: Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), the new Governor of Montreal, arrived in Ville-Marie (Montreal) and assumed his duties.

November: (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) sent (I)-Nicolas Garcot de la Rochette to Boston to enter into treaty with the English which was only partially agreed to.

November 12: Kebec, death (I)-Andre Samson.

November 24: Kebec birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Bonhomme, died March 23, 1642 Kebec daughter (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679)

December 29: Kebec, birth (III)-Jeanne Sevestre, died January 5, 1648, Quebec son (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec.



Three marriages, nine births and six deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    Desvarieux, Vincente (1624-1695) married 1642 Quebec (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1612/16-1699)
    Hubou, Barbe (1620-1651) married 1642 Kebec (I)-Jean Millouer dit Du Maine et Milloir Milloir b-1618

The mission Ville-Marie (Montreal) de la Province de Quebec is established this year. There are an estimated 200 residents of New France.

In the autumn of this year (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1648 and his future son-in-law (I)-Jean Paul Godefroy, who married 1646, (III)-Marie Madeline Le Gardeur, sailed for France. Their objective was two fold:
    1. A petition for trading rights for Ville-Marie (Montreal)
    2. A petition for the return of the Recollets, claiming the Jesuits are attending to the savages but not the French
They achieved the first with conditions, but lost the second.

(II)-Laurent Archambault, (Métis?) b-1642, son (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married January 7, 1660, Ville-Marie (Montreal) Catherine Marchand. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.

(II)-Felix Aubert (Auber) b-1642, died February 20, 1690, son (I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) and Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English; married April 15, 1670 Chateau Richer, Claire Francoise Thibault

Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Auber, died December 8, 1687, Batiscan, daughter (I)-Francois Auber and Anne Fauconner, died November 30, 1676, L'Ange-Gardien, eglise: married 1681 Jacques Dubois

Port Royal; (I)-Jean Blanchard b-1611 married about 1642, Port Royal (II)-Radegonde Joy Lambert b-1621/1629 (Métis). d-1686, daughter (I)-Jean Antoine Lambert and Marie Radegonde Kagijonais a MicMac;

Jean Brossier married 1642 Kebec Marguerite Banse a Filles a Merier

(I)-Francois L'Esguillon dit Lachapelle is at Sillery this year.

(I)or(II)-Pierre Martin married about 1642 Madeleine Slave or Pavis: Slave evolved from Pawnee meaning Indian slave and later any slave in New France, Tanguay appears to be confused on these two entries, he says they were both born LaRochelle, France however he also records Slave to mean Savage. I highly suspect this family line is Indian/Métis, likely a Savage slave shipped to France, educated, baptized and returned to Kebec for marriage. Also could be a son (I)-Abraham Martin (1589-1664) and Huron girl.  see 1608.   Someone else will have to track this one down!   (III)-Madeleine Martin, Métis married Nicolas Frangey, daughter of Pierre  (See 1624, very interesting?)
    (III)-Charles Martin, Métis b-1648, married 1663 Montreal Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Batanville (Attanville) b-1645 widow of Jean Fauconnet a Boucherville
    (III)-Pierre Martin, Métis b-1643, died October 9, 1713 Ste Foye
    (III)-Madeleine Martin, Métis, married (I)-Nicolas Frangey (Franger)
         (II)-Jean Frangey Métis b-1671 Sorel
    (III)-Charles Martin Métis b-1648 1st married 1663 Montreal Catherine Dupuy b-1644, d-1682 Boucherville, 2nd marriage 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645
    (III)-Antoine Martin Métis b-1654 Quebec d-1715 Charlesburg 1st married 1690 Beauport (II)-Jeanne Cadieu b-1663, 2nd marriage 1699 Charlesburg (II)-Marie Bonet (1677-1749)

One birth is (II)-Germain Morin (1642-1702) who will become the first Canadian born priest.

Most habitants of Kebec now produce wheat, rye, peas, barley and other grains to last 6 months, some only 5 months. Others suggest wheat was not introduced until 1644.

This past winter the French colony had enjoyed good health. The first ship to arrive Kebec informed that the supply ship from France had been sunk or captured by the Dunkirkers.

Jules Cardinal Mazarin became Chief Minister of France following the death of Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642). Fort Richelieu is established at the mouth of the Richelieu River, Quebec. The death of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), a Jesuit, who had absolute control over New France, saw the Jesuits attempt to regain this political power by any means possible for the next 60 years plus.

Queen Mother Anne of Austria responded to the appeals of the Society of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and sent forty soldiers to Ville-Marie (Montreal) to deal with the Iroquois problem that was created by the French to isolate the Iroquois and therefore the Dutch from the Indian Fur Trade.

The Jesuit Father (I)-Charles Raymbault or Raimbault (1602-1642) died at Fort Kebec of an illness.

(I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642), the wonder man, Commissary General at Kebec, after spending 35 years in New France, drown near Sillery, (Quebec) as he didn't know how to swim.

The Sillery Indian Reserve, at this time, contained thirty families; making up one hundred and fifty people. (I)-Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), a soldier, on authority of the Jesuit, established a mission, Ville Marie, replacing the Algonquian historic settlement site of Hochelaga and the free trader haven that is later to become the Mountain of Montreal. The Jesuit Father (I)-Barthelemy Vimont (1594-1667) hoped this move would strangle the Coureurs des Bois main trading route with the savages and limit their expansion and exploration. No trade, however, exists for the next two season between the Georgian Bay Jesuit and the mission of the Mountain of Montreal, Jesuit traders.

Fort Maisonneuve (Montreal) is established by (I)-Paul de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) at Point Calliere near the ancient site of Hochelaga.

The Jesuit attempt to humiliate the Nipissing Algonkins religious beliefs, calling them superstitious and licentious in their beliefs arousing much opposition and even threatened him with physical harm. This is significant as these People are known to be slow to anger and very tolerant of other opinions.

The harquebus are traded to the Christian Savages but refused in trade to the infidel Savages. The trade decision is hereby given to the Jesuit at the peril of the colony.

The Agneronons live between Trois Rivieres and the Upper Hiroquois (Iroquois) who comprise 700 to 800 men of arms. They trade with the Dutch and have acquired 300 arquebuses (harquebus). They prey on the Huron who have not a single aquebuses (harquebus) because the Jesuit will not allow their trade to the Huron infidels. The beaver obtained from raids on the Huron is used to buy more powder, shot and guns. The Dutch have been encouraging the Hiroquois to drive the French from the New World.

Since the neophytes proclaimed their faith they have been visited by extraordinary misfortunes, pestilence, famine and war. The Christian neophytes say "you tell us that God is full of goodness; and then we give, ourselves up to him, he massacres us. The Iroquois do not believe in God, they are more wicked than demons; and yet they prosper." The Jesuit say: God uses the Iroquois as a whip, in order to correct you. The Savages say then why did he not begin with the Iroquois? Why did he not try to give them sense first? The Jesuit say few persons go to paradise without passing through the fire of purgatory.

Self flagellation is being encouraged by the Jesuit at Sillery, Kebec for the Savages.

The drum is banned among the Christian Savages at Sillery, Kebec as they represent forbidden superstitions. The Jesuit say by giving up the drum they renounce the Devil.

Among the prisoners is little Therese, the seminarist of the Ursulines, is much sought after in marriage, her uncle named Joseph escaped to tell the tail. The Ursuline convent is completed this year. Marie de I'Iincarnation reported they had 48 pupils. It was not uncommon for Frenchmen to convince girls into country marriages and escape into the bush. After all the girls were being educated for marriage to Frenchmen.

The parish Montreal aka Notre Dame de Montreau is established this year.

January 2: A young Savage woman wishes to leave her husband and return to her people. Father de Quen (Dequen) (1603-1659), the masochist, had her seized and thrown into jail, to bring her to her duty. She was without food, fire, or covering, in the mid of winter, this being according to the Father enough to terrorize this poor creature and others.

February: Menou d'Aulnay ordered the arrest of (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) of Acadia for insubordination and perfidious conduct.

February 14: Kebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) to Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695).

April 1: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Nicolet daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) and Marguerite Couillard: married July 11, 1656, Quebec, Jean Baptist Le Gardeur

April 3: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Crevier Métis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Métis or sauvagesse b-1619; married November 26, 1663 Trois Rivieres (II)-Marguerite Hertel Métis b-1649 Trois Rivieres

April 12: Kebec, death (II)-Antoine Brossard b-1639 son (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.

April 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Francoise Peltier, Métis died July 17, 1707, Ste. Foye, daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, Métis/Indian b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married 1st. August 17, 1654, Quebec, Jean Beriau; 2nd marriage October 11, 1655, Quebec, Sebastien Lienard

April 14: An eclipse on the moon occurred this evening in Kebec.

May 17: (I)-Paul de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), a soldier, (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673),  (I)-Mme de La Peltrie and other colonists arrived Montreal Island. One group of mystics called the Society of Notre Dame du Montreal (conceived in 1636) desires to establish a holy city in the wilderness. The Jesuits are against the venture, as is the Governor of Kebec. They label the enterprise as foolish. It would appear that (I)-Paul de Maisonneuve (born February 15, 1612 died 1676) is their leader. (Others suggest (I)-Paul Shamaul de Duneneff, a 32 year old soldier is their leader, but I was unable to find any verification of this man being in New France.) They purchase the Island of Montreal (in 1640 by Girard de la Chaussee) for their colony. They have 50 settlers to establish the first Ville-Marie (Montreal) Colony. They would labor for 20 years, but are not successful in maintaining a permanent religious settlement. They slowly drift from this settlement.Source is Jesuit Relations 1642 notes. (some value-adds were provided by Francine Bernier).

May 31: Kebec, birth (II)-Joseph Marsolet, Métis, son (I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Métis, epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre

June 1: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Brossard, died September 22, 1712, Quebec daughter (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?: 1st married October 29, 1656 Kebec, Louis Fontaine: 2nd marriage May 2, 1703, Quebec, Jean LeNormand

June 9: Five Frenchmen, only 200 paces from Mont-Real are attacked. Three are beat to death on the spot and two are taken prisoner. They camped near Mont-Real with no fear of being attacked. The next day they crossed the river and 13 Huron are beaten to death. Eight or ten days later one Frenchman escaped to report that a number of French captives are tilling the soil for the Hiroquois (Iroquois).

June/July: Kebec, four ships landed, the Esperance 90 tonnage captain H. Langevin, the Saint Francois 130 tonnage captain J. Barraud, the Saint Nicolas 80 tonnage captain J. Richard and the Saint Pierre 80 tonnage captain G. Fincard.

July 3: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francois Hertel, Métis b-1642 Trois Rivieres died May 31, 1722, Boucherville son (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) (who was captured by the Iroquois) and Marie Marguerie Métis (1620/26-1700) epouse Moral de St. Quentin: married July 3, 1664, Montreal, Marguerite De Thauvenet b-1646.

July 16: Kebec, birth (II)-Mathieu Cote, Métis, son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Métis, d-1684: married 1669 Elizabeth Gravelle

June 22: Kebec, marriage Jean Brossier to Marguerite Banse a Filles a Marier.

August 2: Rene Goupil killed by the Iroquois

August 2: The Jesuits Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), Brother (I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture) (1617-1702) and (I)-Rene Goupil (1608-1642), traveling Ste Marie among the Huron to Kebec, are captured by the Iroquois near Trois Rivieres (Quebec) along with twenty-two Wendat. (I)-Rene Goupil, (1608-1642) a young surgeon and companion of (I)-P. Jogues is beaten to death. (I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture) (1617-1702) killed a Iroquois chief so they issued him unbarable punishment without mercy.  However with Iroquois tradition he was given to a widow woman of a warrior he had killed to determine his fate.  She chose to adopt him and nursed him back to health.  He became a full member of the tribe and was even invited to join the Tribal Council.  He returned to Trois Rivieres in 1645 with Iroquois Chief Kiotseacton to negotiate peace.  However in 1646 (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) went as emissarie to the Iroquois where he was killed, ending the peace.  Brother (I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture) (1617-1702) however asked to be releaved of his vows so he could marry an Iroquois girl.  It's highly likely she was pregnant however no recorded marriage but he married November 16, 1649 Kebec Anne Aymard (1629-1700)

August 13: (I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), with 100 men, built Fort Richelieu at the mouth of the Richelieu River to protect against the Iroquois.

September 10: Monsieur d'Alibour (D'Ailleboust), his wife and sister are at Ville-Marie (Montreal). Fort Richelieu is almost abandoned except for 8 or 10 soldiers.

September 29: (I)-Rene Goupil (1608-1742), a prisoner of war, is killed by the Iroquois after being observed making the sign of the cross over a Mohawk (Iroquois) child. Brother (I)-Guillaume Couture (d-1702) and Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1636) are spared and made prisoner, but later escape and flee to France in December 1643.

October: The English at Boston refused to get involved in the civil war in Acadia that was escalating.

October 9: Kebec, death (I)-Jean Nicolet, b-1598 drown near Kebec.

October 12: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Bourdon, Métis, d-1693 Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Métis, d-1654.

October 22: Father (I)-Charles Raymbault (Raimbault, Raymbault) (1602-1642) died this year.

October 29: Sillery, (I)-Jean Nicolet is at Sillery with (I)-Jean Ferre, died October 29, 1642, Kebec and (I)-Noel Girardeau, died October 29, 1642, Kebec.

November: The Atticameges who live 3-4 days to the North of the Saint Lawrence River arrived Sillery, Kebec in 13 canoes with 60 people to trade. They included their entire family, contrary to normal practice.

November 1: (I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1642) interpreter and agent of the Company of Gentlemen of New France, being unable to swim, drown on his way to Trois Rivieres. He asked Monsieur de Savigny, who could swim, to look after his wife and daughter. He had been in New France for the past 25 years.

November 19: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Millouer dit Du Maine, b-1616 to 1st. Barbe Hubou child of Jean Hubou and Jeanne Goupil, de Du Mesnill Durant; married 2nd November 28, 1651, Quebec, Jeanne Le Roy, b-1626



One marriages, fifteen births and five deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647), married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret, 
Marie Deschamps, (aroundin 1656), married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre, 1672;
Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

(I)-Benoit Abraham is listed at Trois Rivieres this year

Venant Baubrian, Métis b-1643 son Pierre Baubrian b-1620, arrived Kebec 1643 and unknown, most likely a sauvagesse.

Kebec birth (II)-Guillaume Bonhomme, died March 14, 1710 Ste Foye son (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679); 1st married October 30, 1664 Quebec Francoise Hachee; 2nd marriage 1704 Marie Therese Piron.

(I)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) served as a soldier at Fort Kebec (1643-1645), it would appear his Indian wife and family are living Trois Riveries.

(I)-Jean Baptiste Bourgery d-1657 married Marie Gendre * 1st epouse 1658 Trois Rivieres (I)-Florent LeClerc (1619-1664), 2nd epouse 1667 Trois Rivieres, (I)-Francois Michelot widower Marguerite Berbion
* Gendre means 'son-in-law' she is likely a Indian or Métis, a girl of Jeanne Grosse. A Jeanne Le Gendrie a possible sister married 1656 Claude Sauvageot a savage
    (II)-Pierre Bourgery b-1644 d-1703 Boucherville married 1670 Marie Boullard Métis b-1643
    (II)-Marie Madeleine Bourgery b-1652 Trois Rivieres, epouse 1669 Lachine Charles Jacques, 1st married 1667 Quebec (I)-Jean Beune dit Lafranchise (1633-1637?), 2nd married 1689 Lachine (I)-Jacques Chasles dit Duhamel b-1658
    (II)-Marie Bourgery b-1654 married 1670 (II)-Louis Robert dit Lafontaine
    (II)-Jean Bourgery b-1655 Trois Rivieres

(I)-Jean Chevalier, b-1629, died August 5, 1699 LaPrairie married 1643 Marguerite Le Normand
(II)-Jeanne Marguerite, b-1644, died November 25, 1716 Riviere Ouelle: married April 5, 1701 la Riviere Ouelle (I)-Jean Baptiste Deschamps (1646-1703).

(I)-Jacques De Cheurainville married Marguerite Baudon
    (II)-Marie Madeleine De Cheuraineville married 1663 Quebec Isaac Lamy
    (II)-Claude De Cheuraineville married 1665 Quebec "henri Bereau Dit Pominville

(I)-Andre Crevier, a doctor is in Trois Rivieres this year.

(I)-Joseph Debeaune is living Trois Rivieres 

Simeon Heron a servant of the Jesuits is at Kebec this year.

Marie Hirouin (Kirwin) a refuge from Scotland arrived Kebec from France in 1643, she returned to Dieppe but returned to Quebec in 1657.

Monsieur (I)-Nicolet, interpreter and agent of the gentlemen of the Company of New France, died in a shipwreck. He spent 25 years (1618-1643) in New France.

(III)-Pierre Martin, Métis b-1643, died October 9, 1713 Ste. Foye son (II)-Pierre Martin de St. Pierre Il d'Oleron and Madeleine Slave (Slave) de La Rochelle.

(I)-Pierre Mignot arrive Kebec this year and resided with the Ursulins seminars for savages until 1647 where he learned French and the gave him the name od dit Chatillon. He later gave them 300 livres.

(I)-Guillaume Tronquet is at Kebec 1643-1646

Ship list of colonists to Kebec in 1643

Guillaume Amette dit Bontemps, b-1608 de Rouen
Urbain Aubin dit Saint Aubin, b-1619 de Rouen
Jean Baudon dit Beloeillet, b-1623 de Lignieres in Berry
Jacques Bauricus, b-1623 de Montauban
Louis Bayard dit Larose, b-1623 de Normandy
Pierre Bonnet, b-1613, de Brouage
Jean Bucheton, b-1622 de Baignon close to Nates
Pierre Campion dit Lamote, b-1613 de Poitiers
Lazare Cauberch dit Champmartin, b-1618 de Saumur
Isaac Cousseau dit Laroche, b-1619 de LaRochelle
Charles Crestien dit Desmarais, b-1605 de Angers
Marc Antoine Galibart dit Colombier, b-1624 de Bordeaux
Jacques Gaynes dit Beauregard de Mortagne in Pole
Rene Gergault, b-1621 de Scaubon
Antoine Geroult dit Laviolette, b-1618 de Freiburg
Pierre Giraud dit Laplante, b-1605 de LaRochelle
Jacques Guesdon b-161617 de Brouage
Jean Hennequin dit Lapointe, b-1593 de Metz
Nicolas Herier, b-1607 de Brouage
Louis of Jard dit Sainte Catherine, b-1603 de LaRochelle
Francois Latour dit Sainte Marie, b-1615 de Nancy
Jean Laurent dit St. Lawrence, b-1621 de LaRochelle
Martin Leroux, b-1591 de Castle de Dormouse
Pierre Lostellier dit Lapree, b-1610 de Cormecluze close to Coze in Saintonage
Isaac Mainvielle b-1613 de Freiburg
Pierre Papinet dit Perodiere, b-1588 de Parthenay in Poitou
David Pariset dit Francoeur, b-1623 de Lausanna in Switzerland
Forier Peredeau dit Laviolette, b-1618 de Chair the Viscount
Jean Potet dit LaFortune, b-1624 de Lucerne
Nicolas Rouillon dit Pensee, b-1615 de Serras in Lyonnais country
Jacques Roy, b-1611, de Echillais in Saintonge
Andre Savrignac, b-1611 de LaRochelle

Map of New France
New France Cardinal Mazarin (1643-1661), age 41, assumed Cardinal Richelieu's position and policies in the governing of France and New France. The Jesuit Father (I)-Leonard Garreau (1609-1656), Father (I)-Gabriel Druilletes (1610-1681), Father (I)-Martin de Lyonne and Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) arrived at Fort Kebec.

The Dutch Governor, Kieft, disliked the Algonquian tribes along the Hudson River. This year, unprovoked, he massacred the peaceful Wecquaesgeek tribe at Pavonia, sparking off a war. The Royal Dutch Company replaced him with Peter Stuyvesant who had a bad temper and autocratic methods.

Eight years ago one could see 80-100 cabins, now we see barely 5-6, a captain had 800 warriors, now 30 or 40, a fleet of 300 to 400 canoes, now we see 20 or 30, the remnants of the Huron Nation now consists almost entirely of women, widows and girls, who cannot find lawful husbands.

At this time, most French households in the French colony of Kebec maintained a six month supply of wheat, rye, peas, barley and other grains necessary to life of man.

(I)Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson (1612-1660) played a leading role in the newly established Ville-Marie (Montreal, Quebec).

Ville-Marie (Montreal) had grown from 50 people to 70 people by this year.

Fort Amsterdam, New Holland contained 60 soldiers on the Island of Manhttes and their resides about 400 to 500 men of various sects and nations. Forty Hollanders were killed this year and their houses were burned by the savages. New colonists are furnished with horses, cows etc. which they must pay back when they are established, and 10% of their produce to The Company of the West Indies.

New Holland is limited on the north, New England, side by a river called the Fresh River aka. Quinnehtukgut (land of the long tidal river) discovered 1614 by Allen Block, a Dutchman. The English prefer to settle on the Dutch side because the English Milords, extract rents and like to put on airs of being absolute. On the other side to the south has a river called South River aka. Delaware, discovered 1609 by Hendrik Hudson, 1st settled 1623 Fort Nassau (Gloucester, New Jersey). In 1638 a Swedish settlement is established across the Delaware called Fort Christiana (Wilmington, Delaware). The Swedish settlement is being supplied by Amsterdam Merchants much to the consternation of the habitants.

The Savages killed a few Dutch settlers and the Dutch retaliated by savagely killing 50 men, women and even little children. The Savages then retaliated by killing 40 Dutch farmers and burning their houses. The Dutch fielded 600 soldiers who worked in shifts killing 1,600 men, women and children.  The Savages were appalled at such barbarianism and were forced to to make peace or be annulated. It is noteworthy that early encounters with the natives suggested that women and children were immune from harm even during times of war.

Louis d'Ailleboust commanded additional colonists to the Island of Montreal settlement and named the settlement Ville-Marie

Roger Williams governor Rhode Island wrote: nasaump is a kind of meale pottage. The English samp is corn, beaten and boiled and eaten hot or cold with milk or butter. The Acadians sweetened it with maple sugar or molasses. The Algonquian called it Narraganset and the Massachusetts called it saupaum both meaning 'water softened'.

Noel Chabanel d-1650 arrived Kebec 1643 a successful teacher of rhetoric in France but because of his inability to grasp the Huron language, combined with his repulsion for Indian ways he failed and was a broken nan. The savages killed him in 1650 likely because of his arrogance. In 1634 Lejeune also admitted he couldn't master the Indian dialect. The Jesuits also admitted it was difficult to control the tribes of America as they are born, live and die in a liberty without restraints. The Jesuits had no desire to understand Indian religious beliefs as the were quick to condemn them as superficial and embedded in falsehood.

January 1: Kebec, birth, (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Métis, daughter, (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: married January 9, 1656, Quebec, Rene Chevalier: married January 9, 1656, Quebec, Rebne Chevalier  

January 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Barbe Martin, Métis, died October 5, 1660 Chateau Richer, daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage and/or Marguerite Langlois, Métis, b-1611? see 1624 1609 & 1610; married January 12, 1655, Kebec, Pierre Biron

January 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Duquet, died October 13, 1687, Quebec son (I)-Denis Duquet (1605-1675) and Catherine Gautier, b-1627: Married August 25, 1666, Quebec, Anne LaMarre.

February 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Belanger daughter (I)-Francis Belanger b-1612 and (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696): married August 7, 1656 Kebec, Bertrand Chesne dit Lagarenne Sieur de Lothainville

March 27: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Charles Gareman son (I)-Pierre Gareman dit Garnier (in 1666 census) and Madeleine Charlot: married 1676, Marie Gonnentenne, Quebec Rene Mezeray.

April 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Sedilot daughter (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier: married 1st April 12, 1655, Montreal, Jean Aubuchon; married 2nd February 10, 1687Montreal Pierre Lusseau.

April 8: Kebec, birth (II)-Renee Gagnon, son (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620. married Quebec, Jean Ouimet

April 25, Trois Rivieres, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Godfroy, child of (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, (1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf b-1612-1688);

May 1: Kebec, birth (III)-Jean Boucher son (II)-Francois Boucher, b-1626 and Florence Gareman, b-1629

May 3: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Gagnon, died October 27, 1699 Chateau Richer, son (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) and Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695). Marriage Quebec, Marguerite Racine.

May 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Madeleine De Chavigny daughter (I)- Francois De Chavigny, Sieur DeBerchereau and Eleonore, De Grandmaison, b-1619: 1st married July 26, 1656, Quebec, Thomas Douaire Bondy: 2nd marriage November 19, 1671, Quebec, Jacques Alexis De Fleury.

May 31: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Maheu, died 1674 son (I)-Jacques Maheu, d-1663 and Anne Convent, epouse 1627, France (I)-Philippe Amiot and epouse September 10, 1666 Quebec, Etienne Blanchon: 1st married July 16, 1663, Quebec Marguerite Corriveau: 2nd marriage September 18, 1673 Chateau Richer, Mathurine Belanger.

June: (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) blockaded La Tour's fort on the mouth of the St. John River. (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) received help from Boston and drove (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) ship back to Port Royal where it was beached in panic. A pinnace with 400 moose hides and a like number of beaver is captured from (I)-Menou D'Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) and used to pay for the Boston help.

June 9: Montreal, death Bernard Berte de Lyon, killed by the Iroquois along with (I)-Guillaume Boissier and Laforest

June 22: Kebec, marriage Jean Brossier to Marguerite Banse a Filles a Merier

June 25: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Gagnon, daughter (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) and Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695).

July 21: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Jean Rousseau de Paris is killed by a discharge of a gun, he arrived Kebec 1636.

August: Kebec, Admiral Courpon led a fleet of 4 ships having lost a 5th on at sea. The Esperance at 90 tonnage Admiral S. Courpon of the Tour, the Saint Francois at 130 tonnage captain J. Barraud, the Madeleine at 80 tonnage captain J. Jouet, the Marie at 86 tonnage captain P. Metifeu, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage that arrived with supplies for Ville-Marie (Montreal).

September 20: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Boissel daughter (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697): 1st married October 6, 1657 Etienne Bouchard: 2nd marriage January 7, 1687, Quebec, Julien Joyan.

October 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Drouin, died October 4, 1710, Chateau Richer daughter (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) to (II)-Anne Cloutier, died February 3, 1648, Kebec: married April 24, 1656, Quebec, Romain De Trepagny 

November 21: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Leblanc, b-1620 to (II)-Euphrasie Madeleine Nicolet, Métis b-1628 or 1631 (b-1636 not likely) daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) and Algonquian of Huron girl; (see Métis 1600-1639), epouse February 22, 1663, Quebec, (I)-Elie Dusceau dit Lafleur b-1636
    (II)-Jacques Leblanc Métis (1648-1669) Quebec
    (II)-Madeleine Leblanc Métis b-1652 Quebec married about 1667 (I)-Jean Pichet (1636-1699)
    (II)-Anonyme Leblanc Métis (1654-1654) Quebec
    (II)-Marguerite Leblanc Métis (1655-1661) Quebec
    (II)-Noel Leblanc Métis (1660-1660) Quebec

November 29: Kebec, death Marguerite Lesage wife of (I)-Nicolas Pivert long time residents Kebec from before 1624.

December 26: Kebec, birth (II)-Noel Racine, Métis, son of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Métis (1624-1679); married September 12, 1667, Chateau Richer, Marguerite Gravelle

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