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NEW FRANCE 1655 - 1659
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The Jesuit insist on little savage girl slaves

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The people of New France are forbade from leaving the colony without permission.
They are also forbidden to trade with the Indians.

1655

Twenty two marriages, eighty one births and nineteen deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLES a MARIER IN 1655
Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    Bénard, Françoise (1629-1707) married 1655 Montreal (I)-Martin Janot dit Lachapelle (1627-1664); 2nd married 1665 Montreal (I)-Guillaume Bouchard b-1636
    Colin et Collin, Catherine (1636/38-1688) 1st married France; 2nd married 1655 Quebec (I)-Claude Guyon (1629-1694)
    François, Marie-Madeleine (1633/36-1707) 1st married 1655 Quebec (I)-Guillaume Thibault (1618-1686) 2nd marriage 1696 Trois Rivieres (I)-Francois Fafard (1630-1711)
    Letard, Marie (1617-1682) married 1655 Quebec (II)-Jean Isaac Hyeville Roussin (1597-1688) son (I)-Jean Roussin (1636-1691) and unknown
   (II)-Nau de Fossambault, Marie Catherine Métis b-1634/35 daughter (I)-Jacques Nau De Fossambault and Catherine Granger, 1st married 1655 Quebec (I)-Louis De     Lauzon de la Citiere; 2nd married 1659 Quebec (I)-Jean Baptiste Peuvret et Depreuvret Du Menu (1630/32-1697). Métis in this family.
    Thomas, Marguerite (1634-1695) married 1655 Quebec (I)-Jean Pierre Trudel (1629-1699)

Claude Dablon (1618-1697) a Jesuit arrived as a missionary to the Onondaga near Syracuse, New York.

Captain Jean Baptiste Ekhinechkaouat (Métis?) became ill in the woods and was near death when the Jugglers (Medicine Man) using herbal medicine cured him. The Jesuits consider all Jugglers as evil.

(I)-Emmanuel Le Borgue (1610-1675) departed Acadia broke and left his son (II)-Alexandre Le Borgue (1640-1693) to attempt in the recovery of the family estate. Alexandre never amounted to much as he was too fond of the wine.

Pentagouet, Acadia, marriage (III)-Jeanne Jeanne of Saint Etienne de La Tour, Métis daughter (II)-Charles La Tour (1596-1665) and a Mi'Kmaq (Micmac) girl;  married d'Apprendestiguy de Martignon.

(I)-Claude Sol dit Desmarais, b-1629, established himself this year Trois Rivieres.

Captain Noel Tecouerimat (Métis?) is at Saint Joseph of Sillery, Kebec.

Captain Paul Tessouehat (Métis?), the famous one eyed Captain of the Algonquins is on the Island.

(I)-Pierre Thibodeau, b-1630, France, arrived Acadia 1650's, married 1660 Acadia (II)-Jeanne Theriault, b-1744, family settled at Pre Ronge, Acadia.

d'Apprendestiguy de Martignon, a Basque, married 1655 Pentagouet, Acadia (II)-Jeanne de Saint-Etienne de la Tour, Métis, b-1625 Acadia daughter (II)-Charles (Turgis) de Saint-Etinne de la Tour (1595-1665) and Louise a Micmac woman.

A band of Iroquois wintered near Three Rivers among a band of Algonquin, and no disagreement was found between the two Nations. The widows and girls of the Algonquin were allowed to marry the Iroquois. The Iroquois by custom would join the Algonquin culture.

An Englishman noted that slaves are sold from one to another, in New France, as we do sheep.

The Iroquois delivered some of the little girl slaves, as requested by the Jesuits. The Jesuits say the little girl slaves are for the Ursuline Mothers to work in their house of charity. They hope to make so many Christians of them. The life expectancy of the little girls is not long. The Jesuits must have been aware that the Iroquois would have to raid their neighbors to acquire these little girl slaves. This would then lead to war between the two peoples.

The Jesuits consider the Savages God Manitou (Great Spirit) as a demon. This is tantamount to the Savages calling Jesus a demon.

Quebec, a fleet of 6 ships sent, three are lost, the Petit Francois at 50 tonnage is lost to the Spanish with captain P. Delafond, the Chat Bouque taken by the English, a Dutch ship was lost at sea. The Colombe Mouillee and the Patriarche Abraham arrived Quebec.

January 7: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Métis, died April 1, 1661,  Quebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620 

January 11: Quebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Thibaut (1618-1686) to Marie Madeleine Francois b-1633 daughter Isaac Francois and Ester Paigue de Metz, France

January 12: Quebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Biron b-1627
1st to (II)-Barbe Martin, Métis (1643-1660) daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois Métis b-1611
    (II)-Anne Biron Métis b-1660 Quebec 
2nd married December 19, 1662, Quebec, Jeanne Poireau, (1644-1691).

January 12: Quebec marriage (I)-Louis Houde b-1617 to (II)-Madeleine Boucher

January 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Métis, died March 16, 1661 Quebec daughter (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Olivier Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626- 1665); 

January 27: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Francoise Plante daughter (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) and (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711; married November 18, 1676 Cheateau Richer Nicolas Paquin. (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) possible son (I)-Jean Plante arrived Kebec 1619 and therefore possible Métis??

January 26: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Louis Ozannes dit Lafronde (1616-1661) married Marie Denot de la Martiniere, widow of Mathieu Labot.

February 4: Quebec, birth (II)-Guillaume Hebert Aubert, died October 16, 1714 Hotel Dieu, married Marie Anne Roussin and had 11 children.

February 8: Quebec, marriage (I)-Vincent Poirier dit Bellepoire, (1628-1703) and 1st married (II)-Francoise Pinguet, died May 30, 1661, widow of Pierre Delauney: 2nd marriage December 6, 1662, Quebec, Judith Renaudeau (1630-1695)

February 8: Quebec marriage (I)-Francois Blondeau (1632-1702) to Nicole Roland dite Gabrielle (1634-1694)

February 16: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Marie Cloutier, Métis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Métis, (1635-1699); married November 17, 1671, Chateau Richer, Francois Belanger

March 14: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Rouleau, died August 28, 1656, Quebec son (I)-Gabriel Rouleau dit Sanssoucy (1618-1673) and Mathurine Leroux, b-1636, epouse February 5, 1674, Ste Famille, Martin Mercier.

April 1: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Soumande, Métis daughter (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Métis, b-1637; married Joseph Mignot 

April 6: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Pierre Pellerin dit St. Amand, b-1621 to Louise Mousseau, died July 1707, Quebec

April 12. Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Jean Aubuchon dit L'Esperance under contract of marriage September 19, 1654 Trois Rivieres, married (II)-Marguerite Sedilot, Métis? daughter (I)-Louis Sedilot (1660-1672) and Marie Charter, likely a sauagesse 2,nd marriage Marie Grimoult  

April 27: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Pierre Chapiteau b-1605 killed by the Iroquois.

May 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Fournier, Métis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Métis b-1637: married February 17, 1670, Quebec, Pierre Blanchet.

May 29: Jean Liegeois, a Jesuit lay brother, is killed by the Hiroquois at Fort Sillery.

June 2: Quebec, birth, (II)-Laurent Tessier, Métis, died September 27, 1687, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Métis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pointe-aux-Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); married October 20, 1681 Quebec Genevieve Lemire.

August 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Robineau son (I)-Rene Robineau (1629-1699) and Marie Anne LeNeuf de la Poterie, d-1702.

August 30: Montreal marriage (I)-Martin Janot dit Lachapelle (1627-1664) to Francoise Bernard

August 30: Quebec marriage (I)-Denis Jean dit St Onage to (II)-Marie Pelletier Métis b-1637 * daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier and Jeanne de Voisy (Roussey) Indian/Métis (1612-1622-1689) * epouse 1650 Quebec (I)-Nicolas Goupil dit Laviolette
    (II)-Ignace Jean Métis b-1656 Sillery
    (II)-Jean Jean dit Denis Métis married 1671 Genevieve Billot
    (II)-Joseph Jean Métis b-1659, d-1714 Quebec, married Pointe-aux-Trembles (II)-Marie Garnier
    (II)-Marie Jean Métis b-1661 d-1687 Montreal
    (II)-Francoise Jean Métis b-1664 Sillery, d-1708 Quebec
    (II)-Nicolas Jean Métis b-1667 Sillery, married 1698, Quebec (II)-Marie Madeleine Cliche
    (II)-Etienne Jean Métis b-1669 Sillery
    (II)-Catherine Jean dit Denis Métis b-1670 Sillery, married 1688 Quebec (I)-Jean Dubois b-1659
    (II)-Anonyme Jean Métis (1674-1674) Sillery
    (II)-Louis Jean Métis b-1675 Sillery, married 1705 Lachine, (II)-Michelle Perrin (1675-1747)
    (II)-Francoise Monique Jean dit Denis Métis married 1703 Quebec, (II)-Charles Lenormand (1663-1715)

September 19: Fathers Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot and Claude Dablon (1619-1697) departed Quebec to establish a mission in Onondaga country.

September 21: Quebec birth (II)-Catherine Bonhomme, daughter (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679); married 1670 Jacques Bertheaume

September 29: Kebec, birth (II)-Elizabeth Marsolet, Métis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Métis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre:

October 1: Quebec marriage (I)-Sebastien Lienard (1628-1701) to (II)-Francoise Pelletier Métis b-1642 Kebec d-1707 Ste Foye daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier d-1675 and Jeanne du Rousay Métis/Indian (1614/1622-1689) and widow of 1654 Quebec (I)-Jean Beriau b-1631
    (II)-Jean Francois Lienard Métis b-1657 Quebec d-1724/1731 Pointe-aux-Trembles 1st married about 1690 Marie Madeleine Arpot, Wabanquiquois a Sauvagesse (1673-1758); 2nd married 1717 Ste Foye Agnes Robitaille
    (II)-Francoise Lienard Métis b-1660 Quebec
    (II)-Jacques Lienard Métis b-1663 Sillery d-1685 (drowned) Quebec
    (II)-Ignace Lienard Métis b-1665 Sillery married 1691 (II)-Marie Anne Leduc (1671-1744)
    (II)-Denes Lienard Métis b-1667 Sillery
    (II)-Sebastien Lienard Métis b-1669 Sillery married 1704 Ste Foye (III)-Catherine Bonhomme b-1680
    (II)-Joachine Francoise Lienard Métis b-1671 Sillery
    (II)-Genevieve Lienard Métis b-1673 Sillery 1st married 1699 Ste Foye (I)-Denis Mallet d-1704; 2nd marriage 1710 Ste Foye (II)-Jean Francois Gregoire
    (II)-Jean Baptiste Lienard Métis b-1676 d-1707 Ste Foye
    (II)-Louis Lienard Métis b-1678 Sillery married 1711 Ste Foye (III)-Louise Racine (1695-1760)
    (II)-Agnes Lienard Métis married 1704 Jean Greenhill
    (II)-Genevieve Lienard Métis 1st married 1699 Ste Foye (I)-Denis Mallet et Maillet; 2nd marriage 1710 Ste Foye (II)-Jean Francois Gregoire
    (II)-Marie Anne Lienard Métis married 1701 Ste Foye ?
    (II)-Eustache Lienard Métis 1st married 1709 Ste Foye (III)-Marie Madeleine Mauffay (1687-1711); 2nd married 1715 Lorette (II)-Marie Agnes Robitaille (1689-1759)

October 28: Kebec, marriage (II)-Jean Roussin son (I)-Jean Roussin de Tourouvre to Marie Letard

November 3: The Treaty of Westminster, England restored Acadia to France.

November 3: Quebec marriage (I)-Louis Bidon b-1625 to Marie Deligny et Delugny b-1640 possible Métis?
    (II)-Marguerite Bidon b-1661 Chateau Richer d-1687 Pointe-aux-Trembles married 1676 L'Ange Gardien Francois Naud

December 8: Quebec, birth Jean Pinguet, d-1710 son (II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) to Marie Madeleine Du Pont, (1636-1696)

December 29: Trois Rivieres, death (II)-Guy Poutrel, b-1630 son (I)-Jean Poutrel Du Colombier and Medeleine Leneuf Du Hersson

 

1656  

Twenty six marriages, eighty four births and twenty two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLES a MARIER IN 1656
Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    Armand, Marie (1638-1711) married 1656 Trois Rivieres (I)-Guillaume David (1621-1687)
   Camus, et Le Camus Catherine (1633/35-1678) married 1656 Quebec (II)-Charles Gauthier et Cautier dit Boisverdun (1618/22-1703) son (I)-Philippe Gautier and         Marie Plichan epouse (I)-Charles Syivestre
    Grenier, Antoinette (1638-1713) married 1656 Quebec (I)-Jacques Bernier dit Jean de Paris (1633-1713)
    Le Laboureur, Anne (1630-1700) married 1656 Quebec Jean Norman (1637-1706) Métis?
    Richard, Marie (1632/36-1695/96) married 1656 Trois Rivieres (I)-Frances Fafard (1630-1711)

LISTED AMONG THE FILLE DU ROI IN 1667 ? 
    Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667
    Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647),  married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret, 
    Marie Deschamps, (around in 1656),  married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre,
    Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

Five ships sailed from France to Kebec this year. One was captured by the English, one was captured by the Spaniards and one was lost at sea. The other two arrived and departed in safety.

An Iroquois raid in 1655 and a fire this year finished the Indian reserve experiment at Sillery, and by 1663, French settlers would occupy this land. The Dutch Iroquois (the Agnieronnons) were attacking the French everywhere killing and being killed.

(I)-Simon Bourbeau (1626-1692) married about 1656 likely Quebec Francoise Letartie b-1637

(I)-Guillaume David a Hugenot married about 1656 likely Trois Rivieres Marie Armond a Filles a Marier; see alleged brother David listed 1649 and brother Jacques married Marie Grandry not listed Tanguay, these brothers are problematic.
    (II)-Jacques David b-1657 Troie Rivieres married 1690 Boucherville Catherine Lussier
    (II)-Anne David (1659-1659) Quebec
    (II)-Marguerite David (1661-1661) Quebec
    (II)-Marie Anne David b-1663 Quebec
    (II)-Madeleine David b-1666 Quebec
    (II)-Marie Angelique David b-1678 Sorel

(I)-Pierre De La Voye (1631-1708)
1st married about 1656 Jacquette Grinon
2nd married about 1672 likely Quebec Isabelle Aubert d-1687 St Anne

(I)-Laurent Denis b-1635 married about 1656 Elisabeth Anger b-1635 believed settle IIe d'Orleans about 1660
    (II)-Francoise Denis b-1657 married 1667 (I)-Jean Piarar, I suspect the marriage date is in error, likely 1687
        (II)-Antoine Piarar b-1688 Quebec
        (II)-Marie Anne Piarar b-1690 Quebec

(I)-Michel Desorcy b-1625
1st married about 1656 Francois Barre
    (II)-Michel Desorcy b-1657 married 1687 Pointe-aux-Trembles Francoise Garnier
    (II)-Charles Desorcy b-1661 Quebec
2nd married 1662 Quebec Francoise Hubou b-1743
    (II)-Marie Madeleine Desorcy b-1663 Quebec
    (II)-Francoise Desorcy b-1666 d-1749 I'ILe Dupas

(I)-Mathieu Doucet, b-1637 France, a miller, arrived Quebec 1656, died March 25, 1657 at Trois Rivieres.

Martin d'Aprendistiguy, a Basque of St. John River, Acadia married Marie Jeanne De La Tour, Métis daughter Charles La Tour and Mikmag woman.
   Daughter Marie Anne d'Aprendistiguy, Métis b-1662 married 1686 Port Royal Guillaume Bourgeous.

Zacharie Dupuy (1608-1676), Commandant of Quebec, established a post at Syracuse, N.Y.

(II)-Jean Fafart (Fefard) Métis? b-1657 Trois Rivieres died 1756 Detroit, son (I)-Francois Fafard (1630-1711) and Marie Richard; married (III)-Marguerite Couck (Couc) Métis b-1664 Trois Rivieres daughter (II)-Pierre Couc (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8amee8k8e (1631-1699)
    (III)-Marguerite Fefard Métis b-1686 married 1710 Detroit, Jean Baptiste Turpin
    (III)-Jean Baptiste Fefard Métis married 1715 Detroit, Marguerite Joseph Querotia Huronne daughter Joseph a Huron

(I)-Charles de Lauzon de Charny is appointed the Commandant General (interim Governor) of New France from September 1656 to September 18, 1657.

(II)-Peter Esprit Radisson Métis (1636-1710), see 1631, says he was born 1636 St. Malo, emigrated to Canada May 24, 1651, and married 1656 Trois Rivieres to Elizabeth,  the daughter of Madeleine Hainault. He goes on to say that he lived at Tree Rivers where also dwelt "my natural parents, and country-people, and my brother, his wife and children". We need to keep in mind (II)-Pierre was in England at the time of writing this when he was trying to influence the English with his exploits and claimed credit for activities of (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers. Some think (I)-Medard is the brother in question. (II)-Peter's married second wife some time between 1666 and 1673 in England, daughter of John Kirke. He is believed to have returned to Quebec in 1694 and to have died there. (II)-Francoise Radisson, Métis, b-1636, a sister of (I)-Peter is believed to have married 1653 (I)-Claude Violany de St. Claude likely in Trois Rivieres.

(I)-Claude Sauvageot Sauvage or Métis married about 1656 to Jeanne LeGendre Sauvagesse or Métis
    (II)-Alexis Sauvageot Métis b-1672 married 1694 Grondines (II)-Marguerite Martin dit Masse
    (II)-Marie Sauvageot Métis married 1688 Cap Sante? (I)-Louis Mern Métis?

Kateri Tekakwitha (1656-1680) a Mohawk born New York but fled to New France where she died. She was the first aboriginal to become named a saint in October 21, 2012.

Garreau is killed near Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal); shot through the spine.

Kebec, 6 ships arrived, the Rene at 80 tonnage, the Taureau at 150 tonnage captain Rlie Tadourneau, the Fortune at 100 tonnage captain Elie Raymont, the Saint Sebastin captain Guillaume and Jean Poulet and 2 unknown ships.

January 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Perrot daughter (I)-Jacques Perrot dit Vildaigre (1629-1703) to Michelle Le Plot, b-1742: married September 17, 1669, Ste Familee, Francois de Jarret.

February 2: Quebec, birth (II)-Ignace Poulain, son (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) and Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687): married August 23, 1683 Ste Anne, Marguerite Pare.

February 15: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Aubert (Auber) b-1656, died June 20 1728 daughter (I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) and Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English; married November 6, 1683 Quebec Gervais Baudouin

February 22: The Jesuits condemn the Savages for believing their dreams. They have a special festival for what the Jesuits call the 'demon of dreams'. They also call it the festival of fools, or the carnival of wicked Christians. The Savages call it the Honnonouaroria. The Jesuits do not consider the French masqueraders carnival in Europe as evil. If we follow their logic the dreams of the Jesuit fathers, that they call visions, are therefore 'demon dreams'.

March 3: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Poirier, died February 1, 1704, Ste Foye, daughter (I)-Vincent Poirier dit Bellepoire, (1628-1703) and (II)-Francoise Pinguet, died May 30, 1661, widow of Pierre Delauney: 1st married February 6, 1673 Quebec, Jacques Gaudry: 2nd marriage 1692 Ignace Bonhomme 

March 16: Montreal, birth (II)-Marguerite Prud'homme daughter (I)-Louis Prud'homme (1608-1671) and Roberte Gadois, b-1626: married 1st. July 14, 1670 Montreal, Jean Martinet: 2nd marriage January 23, 1703 Jean Latour

March 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Pepin Métis daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and Jeanne Mechin Métis, b-1630; married 1st Fenruary 6, 1674 Trois Rivieres Jean Herou; 2nd marriage August 13, 1690 Trois Rivieres Mathurn Marais

May 2: (I)-Jean Bourdon (1601-1668) weighted anchor at Quebec for a voyage to the north. Some claimed he reached the shores of Hudson Bay and claimed it for France. Other suggest he didn't make it and was driven back by the savages, and his way was blocked by ice. Others suggest 16 Frenchmen and 2 Huron guides reached Kibokok at the mouth of the Ashouanipi River, lattitude 55 degrees north. His Huron guides were killed and that is why they turned back..

May 6: The Onontaeronons killed a cow belonging to Pierre Bival (the Swiss). He fired a swivel-gun at the Onontaeronons, but without effect. They also killed a sow with farrow, belonging to the same man.

March 23: Lamote and Tieri were condemned by the Gentlemen of the Council to pay a fine of 500 livres each, for having sold goods at a higher price than the tariff.

March 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Pepin daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and Jeanne Mechin, b-1630; married 1st February 6, 1674 Trois Rivieres, Jean Herou; 2nd marriage August 13, 1690. Trois Rivieres, Mathurin Marais

March 31: Monsieur the Abbe said in sermon that it was a mortal sin to sell brandy to the Savages. He had previously said it was not a mortal sin.

April 3: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Ignace Lefebvre, Métis, died March 27, 1740, Trois Rivieres son (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married January 12, 1682 Champlain Marie Trotier

April 7: Ste Genevieve, Montreal, birth (V)-Louis Plouf, Métis, son (IV)-Maurice Plouf and (V)-Marie Francois, Métis, b-1730.

April 11: Contract written for (I)-Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) and thirty others to travel to Quebec. The contract was written by a tabellion (notary) Sea Cherbonnier. The contract for 3 years included Nicolas Millet, Joachin Martin, Jean Rabourin, Pierre Menard, known as Saintonge. It was Mer. Francois Peron, ship-owner and owner of the ship Bull on which this group took to the sea. The ship Bull was 150 barrels and its master was E. Tadourneau arriving Quebec in summer of 1656.

June 13: Three French, Adrien Joliet, Fouquet and Christophle are captured by the Iroquois at the First River.

June 18: Montreal, birth/death, (II)-Michel Froget, Métis,  son (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Métis;  

June 22: Kebec, birth (III)-Jean Roussin son (II)-Jean Roussin to Marie Letard

June 25, Montreal, death (I)-Christophe Roger, drowned.

July 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Pellerin son (I)-Pierre Pellerin dit St. Amand, b-1621 to Louise Mousseau, d-1707.

July 11: Quebec, marriage (III)-Jean Baptiste Le Gardeur of Repentigny, b-1642 to (II)-Marguerite Nicolet, Métis b-1642 daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) and (II)-Marguerite Couillard Métis
    (IV)-Pierre Le Gardeur Métis b-1657 Quebec married 1685 Repentigny (II)-Agathe St Per
    (IV)-Guillaume Le Gardeur Métis (1658-1658) Quebec
    (IV)-Marie Anne Le Gardeur Métis (1659-1659) Quebec
    (IV)-Jean Paul Le Gardeur Métis b-1661 Quebec married 1692 Quebec (III)-Marie Josette Leneuf de la Valliere
    (IV)-Augustin Le Gardeur Métis b-1663 Quebec
    (IV)-Charles Le Gardeur Métis (1664-1664) Quebec
    (IV)-Alexandre Le Gardeur Métis (1666-1692) Quebec/Montreal
    (IV)-Charles Le Gardeur Métis (1667-1667) Quebec
    (IV)-Jean Baptiste Le Gardeur Métis b-1668 Quebec
    (IV)-Michel Le Gardeur Métis b-1671 Boucherville d-1701 Montreal married (II)-Marie Gaillard
    (IV)-Charles Joseph Le Gardeur Métis b-1673 Quebec married (III)-Marie Madeleine Blondeau b-1704
    (IV)-Louis Le Gardeur Métis (1673-1676) Boucherville/Montreal
    (IV)-Francois Le Gardeur Métis b-1675 Repentigny, godfather was brother Pierre and godmother was Marie Makats8ing8ots an Algonquine
    (IV)-Marie Marguerite Le Gardeur Métis b-1675 Quebec d-1676 Montreal
    (IV)-Charles Le Gardeur Métis b-1677 Boucherville married (III)-Marie Anne Robineau (1687-1760
    (IV)-Rene Le Gardeur Métis b-1678
    (IV)-Joseph Le Gardeur Métis b-1679 Boucherville
    (IV)-Simon Le Gardeur Métis (1680-1683) Repentigny
    (IV)-Noel Le Gardeur Métis b-1682 Repentigny
    (IV)-Marie Anne Le Gardeur Métis (1683-1684) Repentigny
    (IV)-Joseph Narcisse Le Gardeur Métis b-1684 Repentigny

July 28: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Picard, died November 29, 1700, Quebec to (II)-Marie Caron, died June 10, 1660, Quebec; 2nd marriage November 18, 1663 Chateau Richer, (II)-Marie Madeleine Gagnon, died September 12, 1680, Quebec; 3rd marriage about 1690 (II)-Marie Anne Fortin, epouse January 7, 1702, Quebec,  Etienne Mirambault; 

August: Trois Rivieres, The Coureurs des Bois (I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98)  returned with 259 natives in 50 canoes from the Green Bay (Wisconsin) area and the southern shore of Lake Superior, bearing a future in furs. During this trip they learned of the rich fur country north and northwest of Lake Superior which, they were told is only 7 days by canoe from Hudson Bay.

August 7: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Nicolas Petit dit Lapree, b-1631 to Marie Pomponnelle (1630-1700)

August 11: Bourdon returned to Kebec from his northern voyage. The two Huron's, whom he had taken with him, were killed by the Savages, and a Frenchman was wounded.

August 31: Quebec death (I)-Jean Bonneau dit Lafortune married to Jeanne Richer b-1606 epouse 1668 Quebec Leonard Tresry

September 3: The elders of the Onnontage were informed that if they wanted the French to dwell amongst them, as they requested, they must provide little girls to be placed with the Ursuline Mothers. The savages loved their children and the only way they could obtain slave children for the Church is to raid their neighbors. It is hard to accept that alleged civilized Christian peoples could rationalize child slavery.

September 20: Cromwell granted Acadia to (II)-Charles La Tour(1595-1665) who sold the rights to Thomas Temple (1614-1674) and William Crowne (1617-1682) in return for five percent of the products.

October 2, Quebec, birth (III)-Anne Pelletier, Métis, daughter (II)-Jean Pelletier d-1698 and (II)-Anne Langlois, Métis, (1637-1704); married January 10, 1670 Quebec, Guillaume Lizot

October 7: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Marguerite Cloutier, Métis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Métis, (1635-1699); married November 14, 1674, Chateau Richer, Robert Caron.

October 16: Quebec marriage (I)-Guillaume Bauche (1630-1687) to (II)-Marie Paradis Métis b-1642/43-1708) daughter (I)-Pierre Paradis (1605-1675) and (II)-Barbe Guyon b-1620 Métis? [daughter (I)-Jean Guyon in Kebec 1618, d-1663 married 1620 Quebec Mathurine Robin Métis/Indian d-1662]
    (II)-Martin Bauche Métis b-1658 Quebec d-1703 St Francois married 1686 Ste Famille (II)-Therese Gaulin
    (II)-Marie Bauche et Bauchet Métis b-1660 d-1703 St Anne married 1676 Ste Famille (II)-Framcoise Racine d-1714
    (II)-Jacques Bauche Métis b-1662 Chateau Richer
    (II)-Louise Bauche Métis b-1664 Ste Famille 1st married 1679 Ste Famille (II)-Pierre Asselin d-1694; 2nd married 1696 Ste Famille Nicolas Leblond
    (II)-Guillaume Bauche Métis b-1666 Ste Famille married 1694 Ste Famille (II)-Marie Asselin
    (II)-Claire Bauche Métis b-1668 Ste Famille married 1684 Ste Famille (II)-Jean Choret (1657-1699)
    (II)-Anne Bauche Métis d-1670 Ste Famille
    (II)-Anne Bauche Métis (1672-1690) Ste Famille
    (II)-Charles Bauche Métis b-1674 Ste Famille
    (II)-Joseph Bauche Métis (1676-1676) Ste Famille
    (II)-Joseph Bauche Métis b-1677 Ste Famille married 1698 Cap St Ignace (II)-Marthe Lemieux
    (II)-Marguerite Bauche Métis b-1678 Ste Famille married 1696 Ste Famille (II)-Charles Leclerc
    (II)-Gervais Bauche Métis (1681-1699) Ste Famille

October 29: Quebec marriage Louis Fontaine (1638-1681) to (II)-Marie Madeleine Brassard

November: De la Poterie opened a trading post at Trois Rivieres; trading wine for beaver believing this would regulate the sale of liquor. The Savages do not amend their conduct, and complaints are made against the tavern. The Jesuits requested that the Governor not allow this practice. (I)-Louis D'Ailleboust de Couconge et d'Argentenay (1612-1660) governor of all Canada, decides that the tavern must be closed, according to the Jesuit records. The alleged decree did not force him to close down.

November 5: Trois Rivieres marriage (I)-Francois Fafard (1630-1711)
1st married Marie Richard Métis (1636-1696) daughter Simeon Richard and Catherine Constancineau dit Coutansineau most likely Indian/Métis
     (II)-Jean Fafard Métis b-1657 Trois Rivieres married Marguerite Couck
     (II)-Joseph Fafard Métis b-1662 Trois Rivieres married 1703 Batiscan Marguerite Lafond
     (II)-Louis Fafard Métis married 1696 Ange-Gardien Ursule Jacob
     (II)-Marie Anne Fafard Métis married 1689 Batiscan Julien Laniel
     (II)-Jeanne Fafard Métis b-1664 married 1689 Batiscan Jean Chastenay
     (II)-Francois Fafard Métis b-1660 d-1734 Detroit a farmer and intrepeter 1st married 1683 Champlain Madeleine Jobin; 2nd married 1713 Detroit Barbe Loisel
2nd marriage 1696 Chateau Richer Madeleine Lefrancois

November 9: Quebec, birth (II)-Paul Vachon, Métis, died March 7, 1729 Cap de la Madeleine, ordained Quebec, December 21, 1680 son (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Métis (1639-1697).

November 10: Quebec, marriage (I)-Nicolas Praye (Pre, Dupre) to (II)-Mathurine Buisson

November 20: A Dutchman (Otsirdiakhon) from New Holland visited Three Rivers to provide safe conduct to the Agnieronon peace team who returned 7 French prisoners and requested release of their prisoners. The terms of peace include they bring little girls as slaves for the Church. The French must have realized the savages love their children and would not give them up for slavery. They would be forced to conduct slave raids or continue warring with the French.

November 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Rouleau, Métis son (I)-Gabriel Rouleau dit Sanssoucy Métis (1618-1673) and Mathurine Leroux, b-1636, epouse February 5, 1674, Ste Famille, Martin Mercier.

November 27: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Laurent Archambault, (Métis?) b-1644, son (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married November 27, 1656, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Gilles Lauzon. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.

December 6: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Soumande, Métis, died January 4, 1657, Quebec,  son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Métis, b-1637 

December 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Charles Rouillard, died March 11, 1679, Montreal, son (I)-Antoine Rouillard dit Lariviere (1616-1666) and Marie Girard, b-1640.

 

1657  

Twenty two marriages, eighty three births and thirty two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLES a MARIER IN 1657 Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    Achon, Ozanne-Jeanne (Anne) (1633-1707) married 1657 Quebec (I)-Pierre Tremblay (1626-1687)
    Bigot, Jeanne b-1636 married 1657 (I)-Martin Albert dit Almart
    Bonin, Marie (1638/43-1708) 1st married 1657 Quebec (I)-Pierre Chalut (1630-1676/78) 2nd marriage 1677 Quebec (I)-Charles Palatin dit Lapointe (1631-1704)
    Cartier, Hélène (1635/36-1664/66) married 1657 Quebec (I)-Pierre Paillereau (1626-1669)
    Duchesne, Nicole (1641-1703) married 1657 Montreal (I)-Jacques Laporte dit St Georges (1621/27-1702)
    Forestier (Fortier), Catherine (1637/40-1694) married 1657 Trois Rivieres (I)-Jacques Menard dit Lafontaine b-1629/36
    Garnier dit Lamarre, Jeanne (1636-1673) 1st married 1657 Quebec (II)-Rene Mahue (1632-1658) son (I)-Zacharie Maheu dit Point du Tour b-1606 and Leonarde Fouquet; 2nd marriage 1659 Quebec (I)-Louis Lamarre et De Lamarre (1629-1663)
    Grenier, Françoise (1634/38-1709/13) married 1657 Quebec (I)-Robert boule et Boulet et Boulay (1629-1663)
    Odin et Oudin, Marie Jeanne (1638/43-1713) married 1657 Quebec (I)-Francois Gariepy (1630-1705/06)
    Parenteau or Parentelle, Marie (1641/43-1705) married 1657 Quebec (I)-Robert Gagnon (1628/32-1703)
    Pavie, Marie (1637-1713) married 1657 Quebec (I)-Jean Migneron dit Lajeunesse(1630/36-1700) 
    Radisson, Élisabeth (1638-1722) married 1657 Trois Rivieres (I)-Claude Jutras dit Lavallee b-1630
    Vignault et Vignaud, Jeanne b-1631/36 married 1657 Quebec (I)-Jacques Greslon dit Laviolette (1626-1678); 2nd marriage 1679 Quebec (I)-Philippe Poitiers et Pothier dit Lafontaine b-1643

Jacques Bernard is listed as single but he married Catherine, likely savage, and had one know child Marguerite Rernard Métis born August 9, 1658 Three Hills. Jacque was involved in 29 cases of legal cases in Three Rivers. Frenchmen who took a country wife was officially listed as single. If they did not produce a child they are not considered a settler. The child had to be baptized to qualify as a settler. It's noteworthy that Champlain produced no children and therefore was not a settler.

(I)-Robert Boule et Boulay b-1630 d-1707 St Thomas likely son (I)-Estache (Eustache) Boulle (Boule) b-1600 arrived Kebec 1618 and was in Kebec 1629 and Métis or Indian girl; married about 1657 Francoise Grenier b-1634 d-1709 St Thomas
    (II)-Jacqueline Boule b-1658 married 1672 Ste Famille Pierre Joncan
    (II)-Jacques Boule b-1664 Chateau Richer married 1686 St Thomas Francoise Fournier
    (II)-Jean Baptiste Boule b-1667 Ste Famille
    (II)-Pierre Boule b-1669 Ste Famille d-1689 St Thomas
    (II)-Marie Boule (1670--1670) Ste Famille
    (II)-Martin Boule b-1672 Ste Famille married Francoise Nolin
    (II)-Francoise Boule b-1674 Ste Famille married 1689 Ste Framille Pierre Bernier
    (II)-Paul Boule b-1677 Quebec d-1736 Levis married 1695 Quebec Francoise Pasquier

(I)-Jean Minard  married about 1657 Jeanne Caille (Indian/Métis) b-1632 epouse 1652 Quebec Jacques De la Raue, and epouse 1674 (I)-Guillaume Dupas b-1645
    (II)-Mathurin Dupas Métis b-1675 Ste Famille married 1700 St Jean (II)-Jeanne Bidet b-1676

Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Plante son (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) to (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711; married 1st November 13, 1686 Ste. Famille, Francoise Turcot; 2nd marriage Februaru 6, 1696, Chateau Richer, Genevieve Duchesneau

The mission Ste. Anne de Beaupre de la Province de Quebec 35 km east Quebec city is established this year. Etienne Lessard, one of the first settlers, ceded some land for the construction of the first wooded chapel in 1658.

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Métis (1636-1710) joins the Jesuit Mission to the Onondaga (1657-1658) and increases his knowledge of Indian life.

(I)-Simon Denis b-1599
1st married Jeanne Dubreuil de St Vincent de Tours
2nd married Francoise DuTartre b-1621 d-1670 Quebec. I suspect she is Indian/Métis
    (II)-Marie Gabrielle Denis b-1658 God daughter Abbe Queylus

In France: When a father gives a daughter in marriage, he allows her a dowry;  Among the Savages, it is given to the girls father.

In France: The Man usually takes to his house the woman whom he married;  Among the Savages, the man goes to the woman's house to dwell.

In France: If anyone fall into a fit of anger, or harbor some evil purpose, or meditate some harm, he is reviled, threatened, and punished;  The Savages gives him presents, to soothe his ill-humor, cure his mental ailment and put good thoughts into his head.

In France: A workman does not expect pay until he completes his task;  The Savage ask for it in advance.

In France: We are not very well pleased to see snow or hail fall;  The Savage leap for joy as it falls.

In France: The dead are buried with the least possible clothing: The Savages dress the dead in their finest and include their favorite possessions.

In some parts of France: The dead are buried with their head turned towards the east;  The Savages make them face the west.

(I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?) returned to Fort Quebec, having left in 1654 to make direct trading contact with the Ojibwa and Fox. He had passed south west of Lake Superior to the upper Mississippi. His objective was to bypass the Ottawa in trade and explore the south to curtail the westward expansion of the thirteen colonies. The mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), at this time, contained one hundred and sixty able bodied men. A third of them married, and a census taken in 1665 showed a jump to five hundred and twenty five and, two years later, seven hundred and sixty six. The Mohawk attacked the Island of Orleans and carried off eighty prisoners who were under the protection of the French. Many prisoners are women, and they ransacked the houses in Quebec. The people huddled in the Fort and not a shot was fired in defense of the Wendat who are under the protection of the French. The Sulpician, a religious order, began working in the colony this year. Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson is appointed Governor New France from July 11, 1658 to August 30, 1661. King Louis XIV prohibited the sale of liquor to Indians in New France. The King assigned Father (I)Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) as the first Bishop of New France. The Iroquois renewed their war with the French to stop the flow of furs to the mission of the Mountain of Montreal. About 100 settlers are killed by the Iroquois in the St. Lawrence River Valley.

The Sulpicians, a religious order, began working the New France Colony, thereby breaking the Jesuit monopoly. These Sulpitians directed the religious affairs of Ville-Marie (Montreal) thereby replacing the Jesuits in this settlement.

The French are aware that there are four routes to the North Sea, Tadoussac, Three Rivers, Nipisiriniens and via the Great Sault (Lake Superior). The standard of the day in map making is the distance is reckoned as 15 leagues per day going down-stream and 7-8 leagues per day going up-stream. One league = 3 miles. The basis of most French maps are Savage reports, Coureurs des Bois and Métis reports and they measured distance by days traveled to reach various destinations.

January 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre Baillargeon, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636:

January 17: Quebec, birth (II)-Rene Jacques Petit son (I)-Pierre Petit and Catherine Francoise Desnovers.

January 26: (I)-Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson (1612-1660) is appointed interim Governor of New France from September 18, 1657 (January 11, 1658) to July 11, 1658 (August 30, 1661).

January 30: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Métis, died April 27, 1715,  Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter  (I)Jean Gervaise, procureur fiscal (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Métis? b-1621, died July 30, 1699 Ville-Marie (Montreal); married January 14, 1676 Ville-Marie (Montreal) (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre b-1651.

February 14: St Roch marriage (IV)-Pierre Guay et Gastonguay b-1733
1st married (V)-Marie Anne Pelletier Métis (1736-1770) daughter (IV)-Charles Pelletier Métis (1701-1769) and (II)-Leuise Chouinard b-1704
    (V)-Marie Anne Guay Métis b-1758 St Roch
    (V)-Marie Louise Guay Métis b-1760 St Roch
    (V)-Pierre Guay Métis b-1762 St Roch
    (V)-Joseph Marie Guay Métis (1764-1764) St Roch
2nd marriage 1770 Ste Anne de la Pocatiere Madeleine St Pierre

April 16: Trois Rivieres, Quebec, marriage, (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, b-1624, a Coureur de Bois,  a soldier and interpreter, he died April 1690, St. Francois du Lac. He married April 16, 1657, Trois Rivieres, Quebec, Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (1631-1699) an Algonquine, she 1st married 1645 Assababich b-1620 and they had two children.

March 7: King Louis XIV prohibited the sale of liquor to the Indians in New France.

April 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Agathe Fournier, Métis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Métis b-1637: married September 28, 1671, Quebec, Louis Gesseron.

Marie 1st married 1645 Assababich b-1620 and they had two children;
    **(III)-Catherine Couque, Métis b-1647
    **(III)-Pierre Couque Métis baptised May 6, 1650 and father listed as Pierre Deschamps, d-1665 Trois Rivieres.
    **(III)-Pierre Couque Métis died 1690 St Thomas, Pierreville
Marie 2nd married April 16, 1657 Trois Rivieres and had the following children:
    *(III)-Pierre Couc Métis d-1665 Trois Rivieres   
    *(III)-Pierre Couc Métis d-1690 St Thomas, Pierreville   
    *(III)-Jeanne Couc Métis (1657-1679) Trois Rivieres   
    *(III)-Louis Couc (Couck) Métis b-1659 Trois Rivieres, married 1683 Marie Sauvagesse
     1st married 1681 Sorel, Marie Madeleine Sacokie Sauvagesse
         (IV)-Francois Couc Métis b-1682 Sorel
     2nd married 1688 St Francois du Lac, Jeanne Quigesig8k8e b-1656
         (IV)-Jean Couc Métis b-1688 St Francois du Lac,
    *(III)-Marie Couc Métis b-1663
    *(III)-Marguerite Couc (Couck) Métis b-1664, Trois Rivieres, married 1690 Detroit (II)-Jean Fafart (1657-1756), 2nd married 1702 (II)-Michel Masse (1671-1730)
    *(III)-Elizabeth Couc Métis b-1667 
    *(III)-Madeleine Couc also called Lefebvre, Métis b-1669, married (II)-Maurice Menard b-1664
    *(III)-Jean Baptiste Couc Métis b-1673, married Anne Sauvagesse 
         (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couc b-1706 Lachine
    *(III)-Angelique Couc Métis b-1661 married Francois Singerny (St. Cerny)  
* These children are attributed to (I)-Soldat Couc die Lafleur (1624-1665)  who married Trois Rivieres April 16, 1657 Marie Mite8ameg8k8e Algonquine b-1631, d-1699 Trois Rivieres. **I think this is mixing of two different people.  See April 16, 1657 (I)-Pierre Couc and reference to his father same date?

  April 16: Trois Rivieres, marriage (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624, (died August 6, 1665) Trois Rivieres son (I)-Nicolas Couc dit Lafleur (1600-1675) and Elisabeth Templair; married, Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, an Algonquine sauvagesse b-1631, died January 8, 1699 Trois Rivieres.  See below

April 16: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Pierre Coug dit Lafleur, (1624-1690) married Marie Mite8ameg8k8e sauvagesse, b-1631, died January 8, 1699 Trois Rivieres, others suggest above. Its possible there is confusion between Marie 1st & 2nd marriage?
    (II)-Marie Angelique Couc, aka Caou, Métis, b-1662, died January 7, 1750 Pointe du Lac, married January 7, 1682, Sorel (I)-Francois Delpe et Delpee aka St. Cerny/St. Sorny/ St. Serny (1640-1725)
    (II)-Pierre Couc Métis d-1665 Trois Rivieres
    (II)-Marie Elisabeth Couc b-1656 Couc Métis d-1667 married 1684 Sorel, (I)-Pierre Joachim Germaneau aka Germano b-1656 
   (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour Métis b-1659 1st married about 1681 Madeleine Sacokie; 2nd married 1688 St Francois du Lac Jeanne Quigesig8k8e an Algonquine b-1656
    (II)-Pierre Couc Métis d-1690 St. Thomas, Pierreville
    (II)-Marguerite Couc Métis d-1664 married [two different marriages] Masse Fafart
    (II)-Madeleine Couc Métis d-1669 married (II)-Maurice Menard b-1664
    (II)-Jean Baptiste Couc Métis b-1673, married about 1705 Anne Sauvagesse 

May 27: Quebec death (I)-Jacques Montfort who drowned with (II)-Pierre Duval (1635-1657) while trying to secure the ship Vierge.  Pierre left a wife Marie Jamare b-1636 and son (III)-Francois Duval (1657-1697)

May 27: Kebec,  the ship Vierge arrives with captain Fabien Madot 

May 29: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Petit daughter (I)-Nicolas Petit dit Lapree, b-1631 to Marie Pomponnelle (1630-1700): married November 26, 1671, Trois Rivieres, Jean Gaultier

June 4: Trois Rivieres, baptism Jeanne Lafleur and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) is Godfather.

June 22: Kebec the ship Taureau at 150 tonnage with gunner Jean Denilt and sailor Jean Riat, captain Elie Tadourneau.

July 14: Trois Rivieres, Quebec, birth (III)-Jeanne Couc dit Lafleur, Métis, killed October 23, 1679, Trois Rivieres, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699). Jeanne was murdered by Jean Rattier duBuisson, on October 23, 1679, who was never punished.

Quebec, death, Peuvret, sieur de Margontier, killed at the Cape while bathing.

July 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francoise Volant de St. Claude, Métis, died December 28, 1662 Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Métis. b-1636.

July 29: Fathers Gabriel Thubieres de Levy de Queylus (1622-1677), Gabriel Souart (1611-1691), Dominique Galinier and Antoine d'Allet (1634-1693) arrived in Quebec to found a seminary in Ville-Marie (Montreal).

July 30: Quebec marriage (II)-Rene Maheu son (I)-Zacharie Maheu dit Point Du Jour b-1606 and Leonarde Fouquet de Mortagne; married to Jeanne Garnier
    (III)-Rene Maheu b-1658 Quebec married 1682 Chateau Richer Barbe Boucher

August 7: Trois Rivieres or in the field, birth (II)-Marie Anne Chouart, died November 31, 1664, Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, b-1632

August 20: Kebec, the ship Armes d'Amsterdam at 250 tonnage arrives with captain Jacob Gilles, the Saint Sebastien captain Guillaume and Jean Poulet and at least one ship unknamed..

August 21: Three Frenchmen are killed at Ville-Marie (Montreal) by the Onneiotchronnons (Iroquois). Dailleboust ordered the imprisonment of all Iroquois at Ville-Marie (Montreal), Three Rivers and Quebec. Some 50-60 Savages are placed in irons. In retaliation;  Three French are captured at Three Rivers in plain view of everyone. At Quebec the Iroquois appeared in the fields killing the farmers and pounced upon the Alconquin women, killing them, taking some away as prisoners, who were later recovered by the pursuing French, Huron's and Algonquin's. The French alone in this pursuit numbered 200.

August 29; Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Francois Lienard died February 25, 1724 Pointe-aux-Trembles son (I)-Sebastien Lienard dit Durbois (1628-1701) and (II)-Francoise Pelletier (1642-1707), widow of Joan Neriau; 1st married 1690 Marie Madeleine Arpot Sauvagesse (1673-1758); 2nd marriage Agnes Robitaille, also married Appelee Richard,   

September 12: Temple and Crowne agree to divide Acadia. Thomas Temple (1614-1674) received the area from Lunenburg, Acadia (Nova Scotia) to the St. George River, Maine.

September 13: Louis d'Aillebout de Coulonge is appointed administrator of New France from September 13 to July 10, 1658.

October 2: Quebec marriage (I)-Pierre Trembley Métis? (1626-1687) [possible son (I)-Pierre Trembley who arrived Kebec 1619]; he married 1657 Ozanne Achon et Vachon? Métis? a Filles Marier likely Indian or Métis sent to France for education, baptism, and they settled L'Ange Gardien prior to 1663. I suspect (I)-Pierre Tremblay (1626-1687) was Métis and sent to France or deported in 1629 for education and likely baptism. I also find it interesting that this family moved around so much?
    (II)-Madeleine Tremblay Métis b-1658 Quebec d-1736 L'Ange-Gardien married 1671 L'Ange-Gardien Nicolas Roussin
    (II)-Pierre Tremblay Métis b-1660 L'Ange-Gardien d-1736 Petite Riviere 1st married 1683 Ste Anne Madeleine Simard; 2nd marriage 1685 Ste Anne Marie Roussin
    (II)-Michel Tremblay Métis b-1662 Quebec married 1686 Baie St Paul Genevieve Bouchard
    (II)-Jacques Tremblay Métis b-1664 Chateau Richer d-1741 L'Ange-Gardien married 1696 Ste Anne Agathe Lacroix
    (II)-LouisTremblay Métis b-1667 Chateau Richer, 1st married 1691 L'Ange-Gardien Marie Perron; 2nd marriage 1706 Ste Anne Francoise Morel; 3rd marriage 1716 L'Ange-Gardien Marie Letarte; 4th marriage 1727 Quebec Marie Madeleine Manquis
    (II)-LouiseTremblay Métis b-1669 Chateau Richer, 1st married 1689 L'Ange-Gardien Ignace Gagne; 2nd marriage 1716 Baie St Paul Antoine Buteau

October 15: Quebec, birth (II)-Antoine Prevost, Métis, died March 16, 1662,  Kebec, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620 

October 23: Quebec, birth (II)-Antoine Prevost, Métis, died March 16, 1661 Quebec son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Olivier Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626- 1665); 

October 25: Montreal the Iroquois killed (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657) widowing his wife Francoise Gadois (1586-1689)

November 19: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Jacques Menard dit LaFontaine, b-1629: married Catherine Frontier, Jacques was involved in 26 court cases in Trois Rivieres.

November 19: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Madeleine Pepin Métis, died July 8, 1722, Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Métis, b-1630; married April 7, 1671, Trois Rivieres, Francois Roussel

November 30: in the long point of Coste de Beaupre, Nicolas Maquart conceded in Jean Baptiste Halle a ground of 3 arpents by a a126 arpents depth, located between Jacques Vauclin and grounds not yet conceded on the territory which is now that of the Guardian Angel. This is two years before (I)Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) and (I)-Jacques Jacquereau b-1628 entrusted this ground to Jacques Vezina by contract.

December 10: (I)-Emmanuel Le Borgne (1610-1675) is appointed Governor of Acadia, which is still occupied by the English. This is likely an error as he only spent two years in Acadia 1653-1655 and was not a nice person and lacked the influence or capital for such a position. He died broke at Larochelle, France.

   

1658  

Thirty five marriages, ninety births and eighteen deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

The population of Port Royal, Acadia is no more than 250 souls.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLES a MARIER IN 1658
Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    Arnu, et Arnue et Arneau Marthe (1632/36-1700) married 1658 Montreal(I)-Pierre Richaume dit Petrus (1636-1688)
    Barré, Gabrielle (1638/39-1688) 1st married 1658 Quebec annuled to Jacque Lebreque; 2nd married 1659 Quebec (I)-Guillaume Landry (1623/26-1689)
    Beaucier, Jeanne (1618/39-1676) 1st married 1658 Quebec (I)-Charles Palentin de laPointe (1631-1704) 2nd marriage Francois Boisseau
    Bidard, Marie (1632/35-1664) married 1658 Quebec (I)-Honore Tourangeau Danis dit Danny (1629-1689)
    Bissonnet, Marie b-1639 married 1658 Beauport (I)-Pierre Cousseau dit Laviolette b-1627 family returned to France
    Boyer, Anne (1632/36-1704) married 1658 Trois Rivieres (I)-Pierre Pineau dit La Perle (1631/35-1708)
    Ferra, Marie (1638-1713) married 1658 Quebec Jacques Jahan Laviolette (1631-1699)
    Frit, Marie (1621/31-1684) possible Métis/Indian 1st married 1658 Montreal (I)-Legier Haguenier (1623/24-1663); 2nd married Quebec 1663 (I)-Alexis Beranger b-1616 "
    (II)-Garnier or Grenier, Louise possible Métis (1636-1673) daughter (I)-Charles Garnier and Jeanne Labraye; 1st married 1658 Montreal (I)-Jean Pichard d-1660; 2nd married 1661 Montreak Jacques Morin (1627-1699)
    Gobinet,Iisabelle Elisabeth dit Isabelle (1642-1715) married 1658 Montreal (I)-Paul Benoit et Benot dit Livernois (1626-1683)
    Godard et Godart, Jeanne (1638-1686/87) 1st married 1658 Montreal (I)-Simon Ray (1636-1662); 2nd married 1662 Montreal (I)-Pierre Pigeon (1636-1678)
    Hérault, Jeanne (1624/31-1677) married 1658 Montreal (I)-Rene Filastreau et Filarault (1631/32-1678)
    Leboeuf, Marguerite Marthe (1636/40-1671) married 1658 Quebec (I)-Gabriel Lemieux (1614/26-1700)
    Lemoine or Le Moyne, Anne (1638/44-1725) married 1658 Montreal(I)Michel Messier (1638-1725)
    Lemoine or Le Moyne, Jeanne (1630/36-1682) married 1658 Montreal (I)-Jacques Leber dit Lerose (1633/40-1706)
    Loppé, Renée (1643-1679) married 1658 Montreal (I)-Jean Valiquet dit Laverdure (1632-1696) he was banished from Montreal 1679 for incest.
    Meunier, Françoise (1636-1690) married 1658 Quebec (I)-Pierre (Jean) Du Bois dit Morel (1625-1690)
    Pacrac et Pacreau, Marie (1628/29-1699) married 1658 Montreal (I)-Fiacre Ducharme (1627/28-1676/77) 2nd married 1678 Montreal (I)-Antoine Pichou et Pichou dit Du Vernay (1645-1687)
    Triot, Marie-Madeleine (1641-1701) married 1658 Quebec Charles La Francois (1626-1700) Trotin, Marie (1646-1682) married 1658 Quebec (I)-Michel Blanchard (1635-1709)
    Valade, Marie-Barbe (1644-1724) 1st married 1658 Quebec (I)-Michel L’Homme (1632-1676; 2nd marriage 1677 Quebec (I)-Jacques Le Meilleur (1630-1700)

(I)-Simon Baron, a Jesuit donnes and self taught surgeon is at Trois Rivieres having arrived 1637, 1634 Kebec and 1631 Cape Breton.

(I)?-Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) married about 1658 (II)-Jeanne Langlois Métis daughter  (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), and Francoise Grenier (Garnier), Algonquin Métis, born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec. No marriage contract was found. (Francoise could be a Native or Métis? but most likely a sauvagesse but with a French name likely Métis or adopted?)
    (II)-Louise Chevalier Métis b-1659 Quebec d-1703 Beauport married (II)-Jacques Parent et Parant
    (II)-Francois Chevalier Métis (1661-1661 Beauport
    (II)-Jean Chevalier Métis b-1663 Quebec married 1686 Beauport (II)-Marie Madeleine Avisse
    (II)-Guillaume Chevalier Métis b-1665 Quebec married 1689 Beauport (II)-Jeanne Gauthier et Gautier
    (II)-Michel Chevalier Métis b-1670 Quebec married 1695 Beauport (II)-Charlotte Parent
    (II)-Jeanne Chevalier Métis b-1673 Beauport d-1746 Quebec married 1692 Beauport (II)-Michel Parent
    (II)-Marie Therese Chevalier Métis b-1674  married 1696 Beauport (II)-Etienne Parent

(I)-Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689) arrived Kebec.

Birth (III)-Louise Cloutier, Métis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Métis, (1635-1699); married October 24, 1679, Chateau Richer, Antoine Toupin.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Antoine Baillargeaun dit Durivage (February 22, 1699 at Kaskakin, Illinois) son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 and Marie Metayer, b-1636 child od d'Etienne and Jeanne Robineau; 1st married Marie Aco; 2nd married likely 1700, Kaskakin, Illinois, Domitilde Ch8ping8a, sauvagesse.

Claude Dablon (1618-1697) a Jesuit and French settlers near Syracuse, New York fled to Canada to avoid massacre.

Louis Pinard, b-1636, surgeon married 1658 Marie Madeleine Hertal, Louis was involved in 32 court cases at Trois Rivieres

(I)-Pierre You, Sieur De la Decouverte b-1669, died August 28, 1718, Ville-Marie (Montreal) son Pierre You and Renee Turrot of St. Sauveur, La Rochelle, Aunis, France, married likely 1693 Ville-Marie (Montreal) to Elisabeth Sauvagesse Miami, 2nd marriage Madeleine Juste;
   RECORDED CHILDREN
        Child of Elisabeth; (II)-Marie Anne You, Métis b-1694 married August 15, 1718, Jean Richard (not listed Tanguay)
       Children claimed of Madeline (II)-Louise You (1706-1728), and (II)-Marie Catherine You b-1708. (not listed Tanguay) these are baptism dates and maybe children of Elisabeth.   

An order from the French King forbid the people of New France to leave the colony without the Governors permission in the form of a permit. Until this time, 50% of the indentured French returned to France after their indenture was complete. A permit is issued only to those who have a wife and children and considerable property, to return to France to conduct business. The three year indenture to New France became a life sentence. In effect, these French Canadians are no longer citizens of France.

(I)-Pierre de Voyer Vicomte d'Argenson (1625-1709) became Governor of New France on July 11, 1658 to August 31, 1661. It is said that he spent half his time defending New France from the Iroquois and the other half defending New France from the Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), who it was said "listened to no one" (Bishop Quebec 1659-1688) and the Jesuits. Lavel was a political appointment to undermine the Governors of New France in an attempt for the Jesuits to regain control. He urged a monopoly control over the fur trade and an increased agrarian population, but his advice was not heeded 

The thirty years religious war had ended in Europe. Absolutism of one king, one faith and one law in France entrenched rather than used the promised tolerance. Religious tolerance, abolishment of witch hunts and inquisition persecution, is promised. The peasant population, especially the Protestants, continue to be harassed, and there are higher taxes to pay for the war. The people could see no immediate relief to their misery.

The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), was made Apostolic Vicar in New France. He came under the direct authority of the Roman Papacy and not under the authority of the French Crown. Last year, the Sulpicians had taken over the parish of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and became seigneurs of the island. Within a few months they were feuding bitterly with the Jesuits and with Bishop Laval, after he arrived, over ecclesiastical jurisdiction. To complicate matters, the divided clergy was in bitter opposition with the Governor and merchants. New France was being torn apart, and they appealed to the French Crown to resolve their issues.

Kebec, 5 ships arrived, the Saint Joseph at 350 tonnage captain Fabien Marot, the Taureau at 150 tonnage captain Elie Tadourneau, the Prince Guillaume at 200 tonnage captain Jacques Jamain, the Saint Sebastien captain Guillaume et Jean Poulet and the Sacrifice d'Abraham at 300 tonnage pilopt Pierre Boileau and captain Elie Raymond.

January 25: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Soumande, Métis daughter (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Métis, b-1637; married November 21, 1672, Quebec, Francois Hazeur 

February 4: Trois Rivieres marriage (I)-Florent Leclerc (1619-1664) to Marie Gendre Métis/Indian, girl of Jeanne Grosse, widow of 1643 (I)-Jean Bourgey d-1657 & 1667 Trois Rivieres (I)-Francois Michelot
    (II)-Florent Leclerc (de la Citiere) Métis (1659-1704) Trois Rivieres married 1685 Trois Rivieres (II)-Jeanne Aubuchron (1674-1748)
    (II)-Jean Leclerc Métis (1660-1730) Trois Rivieres married 1689 Trois Rivieres Marie Claire Loiseau
    (II)-Stephanie Leclerc Métis b-1663 Trois Rivieres

February 19: Quebec married (I)-Louis Rouer de Villeraye (1629-1700)
1st married (II)-Catherine Sevestre d-1670
2nd married 1675 Quebec Marie Anne Du Saussay de Bemont

February 25: Trois Rivieres death (II)-Martin Dubois son (I)-Pierre Dubois

March 8: A man by the name of (I)-Etienne DeLessard (1623-1703) and wife (III)-Marguerite Sevestre Métis d-1720 donated two frontal acres from the West end of their  property at Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, 22 miles N.E. Quebec City, to the Catholic Church so that a chapel could be built. This chapel eventually became the site of the modern-day basilica. It was built for two reasons: to provide a place of worship for the new Métis settlers in the area and to house a miraculous statue of St. Anne.
The first reported miracle at the site happened during the shrine’s construction. A man named (I)-Louis Guimond dit Guimont (1625-1661) married to Jeanne Bitouset (1636-1706) a Filles a Marier in 1653 was hired to help build the shrine even though he suffered from rheumatism. After placing three stones upon the shrine’s foundation, Guimond was cured of all his ailments.  This was followed by other testimonies of healed people and the shrine soon grew in popularity.

March 24: Montreal, birth (II)-Pierre Prud'homme, died March 29, 1703 Montreal  son (I)-Louis Prud'homme (1608-1671) and Roberte Gadois, b-1626: married February 9, 1688, Quebec, Anne Chasle

April: The people of Beaupre request an inquiry concerning the life and morals of  Father Vaillant of Cote de Beaupre. Father Vaillant counter charged the people of Beaupre as calumniators (slanders). Eighty-three witnesses are called, and Father Vaillant is condemned and ordered to pay costs.

April 12: Quebec, birth (II)-Ignace Pellerin son (I)-Pierre Pellerin dit St. Amand, b-1621 to Louise Mousseau, d-1707.

(II)-Alexander Le Borgne (1640-1693) moved to Le Heve that was burned by his father in 1653 and recently abandoned by the English. Thomas Temple from Boston moved against Le Heve and captured Borgne and sent him to England and prison.

May 1: likely Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Pierre Pineau dit La Perle (1631-1708) to Anne Boyer (1636-1704).

June 1: (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Métis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) depart Quebec for Lake Superior and beyond, to visit the Dakota Sioux.

July 7: Quebec, (I)Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) joined with (I)-Jacques Jacquereau b-1628 to purchase a concession in Coste de Beaupre later called Guardian Angel

August 4: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Louis Petit son (I)-Nicolas Petit dit Lapree, b-1631 to Marie Pomponnelle (1630-1700): married 1st January 7, 1686, Boucherville, Marie Charles; 2nd marriage March 19, 1710, Varennes, Michelle Charter

August 6: Quebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Petit, (1633-1676) and Marie Godeau, b-1633, Pierre 2nd marriage July 6, 1663, Chateau Richer, Jeanne Morineau od diocese Lucon.

August 10: Construction of Hotel Dieu in Quebec is completed.

August 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Rouleau, daughter (I)-Gabriel Rouleau dit Sanssoucy (1618-1673) and Mathurine Leroux, b-1636, epouse February 5, 1674, Ste Famille, Martin Mercier.

August 18: Quebec, birth (III)-Pierre Joseph Pinguet d-1691, son (II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) to Marie Madeleine Du Pont, (1636-1696); married October 19, 1689, Montreal Catherine Tetard

September 1; Quebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Vachon, Métis, died June 24, 1703 Beauport, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Métis (1639-1697); married September 1, 1658, Quebec, Jean Robert Duprac.

September 3: Quebec marriage (I)-Gabriel Lemieux b-1626
1st married Marguerite Le Beuf b-1640
2nd married 1671 Quebec Marthe Beauregard  b-1642 d-1728 Levis

September 16: Montreal, marriage (I)-Jean Pichard to Louise Garnier, epouse September 19, 1661, Montreal Jacques Morin

September 16: Montreal marriage Pierre Richaume dit Petrus a Hugenot b-1636 bapt 1660 d-1688 marriage to Marie Marthe et Jeanne Arnault et Arnue et Arnu (1632/36-1700/09) a Filles a Marier, it's not likely the French would allow a Hugenot to marry a Filles a Marier.
There is confusion concerning Jeanne, she might be Indian/Métis?

September 16: Montreal marriage (I)-Michel Theodore dit Masson
1st married unknown
2nd marriage about 1659 Montreal Jacqueline Lagrange dit Moreau b-1641 daughter Jean Lagrange and Marguerite Boure

September 19: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Angelique Lefebvre, Métis, died December 4, 1735 Becancour son (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married married 1st Marie Madeleine Cusson: married 2nd Genevieve Guyet

September 29: Marguerite Bourgeoys and Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) departed Ville-Marie (Montreal) for France to recruit young girls to be teachers.

September 30: Quebec marriage (I)-Pierre DuBois Morel b-1625 to Francoise Meunier b-1636
    (II)-Louse DuBoios Morel b-1669 married Michel Brouille 

October 2: Quebec marriage (I)-Pierre Tremblay (1626-1687) to Anne Ozanne Achon (1633-1707) a filles a marier

October 14: Quebec marriage (I)-Charles Palatin dit Lapointe (1631-1704)
1st married Jeanne Beausier et Beaucier (1618/1632-1676) a Filles a Marier epouse Francois Boisseau
2nd marriage 1677 Quebec Marie Bonin widow of Pierre Chalut

October 18: Quebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Poulain, died May 20, 1722, daughter (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) and Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687): married Ste Anne August 7, 1673, (II)-Jean Amyot (Villeneuve) daughter (I)-Philippe Amyot and Anne Convert (1601-1675)

October 29: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Louis Pinar, (1636-1695) to (II)-Marie Madeleine Hertel daughter (I)-Jack Hertel.

November 11: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Antoine Baillargeon, b-1658 Trois Riviers, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 and Marie Metayer, b-1636: married 1st Marie d'ACo; married 1697/1700 Kaskakia (Illinois) Domitide Ch8ping8a (Choupingoua), Indian girl
    (III)-Pierre Baillargeon Métis b-1701 Kaskakia (Illinois)
    (III)-Michel Baillargeon Métis b-1711 Kaskakia (Illinois), d-1720 Montreal
    (III)-Marie Baillargeon Métis (1725-1725)

November 11: Quebec marriage Jacques Lebreoue to Gabrielle Barre (1639-1688) a Filles a Marier epouse 1659 Guillaume Laudry (1623-1689) first marriage was annulled, not listed Tanguay nor are the alleged children
    

November 12: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) to (II)-Anne Martin, Métis, b-1645 daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois Métis b-1611;
daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois Métis b-1611
    (II)-Jacques Rate Métis (1659-1659) Quebec
    (II)-Berirand Rate Métis (1660-1660) Quebec
    (II)-Michel Rate Métis (1662-1686) Quebec
    (II)-Marie Anne Rate Métis b-1665 Quebec married 1683 St Pierre (II)-Ignace Gousselin (1654-1727)
    (II)-Michelle Rate Métis b-1666
    (II)-Jean Baptiste Rate Métis b-1667 Ste Famille married 1698 Ste Famille (II)-Madeleine Blouard (1682-1746)
    (II)-Anne Rate Métis b-1670 Ste Famille d-1709 Chateau Richer 1st married (II)-Jacques De Trepagny (1665-1706); 2nd marriage 1707 Chateau Richer Jean Anglais
    (II)-Jacques Rate Métis b-1673 Ste Famille
    (II)-Pierre Rate Métis b-1675 Ste Famille
    (II)-Genevieve Métis b-1678 Ste Famille marriage 1704 Chateau (I)-Jean Sicard DeCarufel
    (II)-Louise Rate Métis b-1680 St Pierre married (II)-Louis Martin (1671-1749)
    (II)-Ignace Rate Métis b-1683 St Pierre
    (II)-Guillaume Rate Métis b-1686 St Pierre married 1710 St Pierre (II)-Marie Madeleine Nolin (1690-1748)

November 12: Montreal, marriage (II)-Nicolas Gode (1636-1697) son (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657) and Francoise Gaddis (1586-1689); married Marguerite Picard b-1646, epouse October 20, 1681 Montreal Jean Pare

 

1659  

Thirty six marriages, ninety one births and thirty one deaths are recorded in New France.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLES a MARIER IN 1659
Between 1634-1662 young girls were sponsored by the Church, Company Associates or Merchants to marry Quebec men who usually entered into contract to marry a specific man before leaving France.
    Camus or Le Camus, Élisabeth (1633/45-1678/80) married 1659 Montreal (I)-Louis Guertin (1625/35-1687) "
    Charles, Catherine (1637/38-1691) married 1659 Montreal (I)-Urbain Jette (1627-1684)
    Drouillard, Marie-Madeleine (1636/39-1719) married 1659 Trois Rivieres (I)-Pierre Dizy dit Moniplaiser (1634/5-1698)
    Drugeon et Deugeon, Élisabeth b-1636/42 married 1659 Quebec (II)-Jean Le Houx (1633-1698) son (I)-Jean Jacques Le Houx (1583-1680) and Jeanne Jahan b-1636
    (II)-Durand, Anne-Antoinette (1635/36-1703) daughter (I)-Guillaume Durand, 1st married 1659 Quebec (II)-Marin Duval killed 1661 by Iroquois shortly after marrying son (I)-Pierre Duval b-1604 and Jeanne Labarbe b-1605; 2nd marriage 1661 Quebec (I)-Nicolas De Launay (1633-1703)
    Duteau et Dutost dit Perrin, dit Ouenville et Ouimet Marie-Michelle (1639/40-1675) married 1659 Trois Rivieres or Champlain (I)-Michel Lemay (1630/31-1684) son Francois Lemay d-1653 Quebec married 1659 France? Marie Gaschet d-1655 Quebec or Marie Gachet (1639-1675) a Filles a Marier? Epouse 1677 Montreal or 1685 Lotbiniere Louis Montenu. (II)-Michel Lemay b-1666 married 1686 Champlain Catherine Jobin. I think these represent different people.It’s a mess see Gachet dit Dutust
    Du Verdier ou Saulnier, Françoise b-1638 1st married 1659 Montreal (I)-Pierre Lorin et Lorrain dit Lachapelle Lachapelle Lorrbin (1629-1658/87); 2nd married 1687 Montreal (I)-Jean Le Roy dit Serrian (1632/34-1689); 3rd married 1690 Montreal (I)-Thomas Mortseigne dit Labonte d-1696; 4th married Montreal Bernard Dumouchel dit Laroche Sauviot, Marguerite
    Duverger, Françoise (1636-1671) 1st married 1659 Montreal (I)-Simon Galbrun (1635-1669) murdered by her second husband, marriage 1671 Montreal (I)-Jean Boutin dit Leveille d-1669. She was executed 1671 see 1659
    Gachet dit Dutust dit Ouenville et Ouimet, Marie (1639-1675) married 1659 Trois Rivieres (I)-Michel Lemay (1630/31-1684) 2nd marriage 1685 (I)-Louis Montenville b-1651see Duteau et Dutost dit Perrin
    Le Breuil, Louise-Thérèse-Marie (1636-1727) 1st married 1659 Montreal Sylvestre Cacher d-1659 killed by the Iroquois; 2nd married 1659 Montreal (I)-Martin et Marin Deniau et Deneau dit Suily (1621-1678)
    Lotier (Lothier), Catherine (1641-1705) 1st married 1659 Montreal Adrien Leger et Legier dit Haguenier (1631-1661); 2nd married 1661 Montreal (I)-Mathurin Joussett (1626/29-1705)
    Mathieu, Catherine (1630/32-1697) married 1659 Quebec (I)-Francois Treffle dit Rotot(1628/35-1705)
    (II)-Pelletier, Jeanne (1644-1715) daughter (I)-Nicolas Pelletier and Jeanne De Voisy; married 1659 Quebec Noel Jeremie (1630-1696)
    Surget, Madeleine (1638-1697) 1st married 1659 Quebec (I)-Jean Clement dit Lapointe (1626/29-1686); 2nd married 1693 L’Ange Garden (I)-Jacques Marette b-1631
    Vauvilliers, Jeanne (1637-1699) married 1659 Montreal (I)-Benigne et Benique et Benot et Bassent (1639-1699)
    Viez et Vié dite Lamotte, Marie (1642-1682) married 1659 Quebec (I)-Hubert Simon dit Lapointe) (1626-1704)

Records indicate 36 marriages, 91 births, 31 deaths and 60 excedant (single?) in Kebec, New France. The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), appealed to King Louis XIV to send troops to defeat the Iroquois barbarians.

Charlesbourg is a borough of Quebec City and was founded 1659.  It was originally called Bourg Royal and was part of the Seigniory granted to the Jesuits in 1626.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Baillargeon, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636:

Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) married most likely early 1659, (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Métis b-1643, Quebec daughter (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1684) and Francoise Grenier (Garnier) d-1665, Sauvagesse

(I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 marriage Quebec to Catherine LaTour dit Simonet Métis b-1638 died February 4, 1678 Ste Family, likely the daughter of one of the LaTour brothers.

Nicolas Gosse b-1626 had a son Nicolas Gosse b-1660 arrived Quebec 1681

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Elizabeth Pepin Métis died December 31, 1697 Champlain, daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Métis, b-1630; married November 16, 1671 Jean Arcouet dit Lajeunesse

Quebec, birth (II)-George Plante son (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) to (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711; married November 5, 1685, St. Francois, Margeueite Crepeau.

(II)-Jean Baptiste Prevost, Métis, b-1659, died May 12, 1737, St. Augustin, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626-1665): married 1st. August 18, 1683, Quebec, (II)-Marie Anne Giroux, b-1607 daughter (I)-Toussaint Giroux: married 2nd February 3, 1712, Ste Foye, (III)-Genevieve Sedilot, daughter (II)-Jean Sedilot.

(I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?) ventured among the Wendat to persuade them to bring more pelts down the St. Lawrence River. In the Green Bay area, he heard stories of much untouched beaver, north of Lake Superior to the inland sea (Bay of the North or Hudson Bay) from des Groseilliers.

Birth (II)-Elizabeth Pepin, died Decenber 31, 1697, Champlain daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and Jeanne Mechin, b-1630; married November 16, 1671, Trois Rivieres, Jean Arcouet dit Lajeunesse

Cap Breton, Acadia is commanded by Monsieur Denis.

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Métis (1636-1710) is taken on an unlicensed fur trading expedition to Lake Superior and Michigan by his half sister's husband, (I)-Medard Chouart des Grosseilliers (1618-1696). He learns, at this time, of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).

French in small boat.
French in boat Many small boats were being used on the St Lawrence River.

(I)-Louis Garnault is born 1634 baptised 1641 in Grimaudiere, France, died April 2, 1698 L'Ange-Gardien, Quebec. The location of Grimaudiere is about five miles from Mirebeau, the district of Leveche de Poitiers (Vienne). He is the son of Pierre Garnault and Jeanne Barrault. He immigrated to New France under the name of (I)-Louis Garnaud (1634-1698). He was probably a Protestant and indentured for thirty-six months. La Rochelle, France is the most probable departure point to New France. La Rochelle is a sordid city because of its crowded and shabby streets, packed tightly about the waterfront. He probably arrived the summer of this year, maybe June1656.

Three ships arrived this year at Fort Quebec;

    Saint-Andre- at 300 tonnnage with Captain Guillaume Poulet. Garneau not listed this ship.
    Prince Guillaume- at 200 tonnage with Captain Guillaume Heurtin
    Sacrifice d’Abraham- at 300 tonnage with Captain Isaie Guyesmeux

The accomplishments of the Jesuit missionaries from 1625 to 1659 are, to say the least, minor. The failure of their mission is more than compensated for by their activities as secular colonial agents.

Three Frenchmen are killed by the Iroquois at Ville-Marie (Montreal).

From 1659 to 1692, Port Royal, Jamaica aka Pirate Town, became a haven for rogues such as, Henry Morgan (1635-1688) [a pirate, Privateer, Admiral of the Royal Navy and Deputy Governor of Pirate Town] Pirates and Buccaneers were allowed to be Privateers but restricted to preying on the Spanish for pillage and plunder. Before its destruction the population of what became known as Pirate City was 6,500. It was considered as the Wickedest City on Earth at the time. Shortly after the earthquake survivors were pillaging the dead and their homes, drinking, gambling, swearing and whoring

January 13: Montreal marriage (I)-Fiacre Ducharme (1628-1677) to Marie Pacrau (Pacraud, Poltevin) b-1628 (Metie/Indian?)
    (II)-Angelique Ducharme (1674-1742) Montreal married 1690 Montreal Claude Dudevoir

January 26: Montreal marriage (I)-Urbain Jette (1627-1784) to Catherine Charles b-1638

January 29: Quebec, marriage (I)-Noel Jeremie de la Montagne b-1629 to (II)-Jeanne Peltier Métis daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy Indian/Métis (1622-1689)
     (II)-Ignace Jermie Métis (1660-1666) Sillery
     (II)-Catherine Gertrude Jermie Métis b-1664, Sillery 1st married 681 Champlain, (II)-Jacques Aubuchon, 2nd marriage 1688 Batiscan (I)-Michel Le Pailleur
     (II)-Marie Charlotte Jermie Métis b-1667 Sillery d-1742 Batiscan, married 1682 Batiscan, (II)-Claude Le Pele (Lepelle) dit Lahaye d-1742
     (II)-Nicolas Jermie Métis b-1669 Sillery, d-1732 Quebec
     (II)-Francois Jermie Métis b-1671 married 1706 Ste Foye, (II)-Francoise Agnes Gingras b-678
     (II)-Marie Madeleine Jermie Métis b-1674, d-699 Quebec married (II)-Louis Denis Mallet d-1704
     (II)-Louis Jermie Métis b-1676
     (II)-Noel Jermie Métis b-167
     (II)-Pierre Jermie Métis (1681-1681)
     (II)-Ignace Jermie Métis d-1684
     (II)-Joseph Jermie Métis b-1687,d-1730 St. Nicolas, married 1706 St. Nicolas, (II)-Anne Rousseau (1683-1726)

February 18: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Rouillard, died June 2, 1690 daughter (I)-Antoine Rouillard dit Lariviere (1616-1666) and Marie Girard, b-1640.

March 6: Ste Genevieve, Montreal, birth (V)-Marie Angelique Plouf, Métis, Daughter  (IV)-Maurice Plouf and (V)-Marie Francois, Métis, b-1730: married June 27, 1689, Quebec.

March 2, Quebec, birth (III)-Rene Pelletier, Métis, son (II)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Métis, (1637-1704)

April 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Jacquelle Fournier, Métis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Métis b-1637: married June 5, 1673, Quebec, Jean Prou.

April 15: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Chouart, died June 22, 1711, Trois Rivieres daughter (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, b-1632. Godparents are Jean Guerin and (II)-Francoise Radisson, b-1636 Métis, (1635-1677) half sister of (II)-Marguerite Radisson b-1632.

May: Monsieur de la Citiere, L'Archevesque and Herosme upset a canoe returning from the Island of Orleans in heavy gale. Two Alguonquins, Jean de Noyon, a Jesuit domestic, departed Three Rivers on an embassy to Agnie, with Tigarihogen, 4 freed Iroquois Kebec prisoners, and three ambassadors from Oneiout.

May 1: Quebec marriage (I)-Mathurin Normandin (Sauvage) son Jean Normandin and Marie Desmaisons; married Suzanne Badeau epouse July 26, 1665 Kebec Jean De Rainville, daughter (I)-Jacques Badeau d-1658 and Anne Ardouin, likely sauvage. Tanguay suggests the name Normandin is Sauvage.

May 5: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jeanne Gervaise, Métis, daughter  (I)Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Métis (1621-1699); married January 17, 1678, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Jean Dupuis.

May 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Louis Prye son (I)-Nicolas Praye (Pre, Dupre) and (II)-Mathurine Buisson

June: LaRose says the 'Flemish Bastard' is leading five Iroquois canoes to make war on the French.

June 9: Montreal, birth/death, (II)-Gabriel Froget, Métis,  son (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Métis;  

June 16: The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), arrived in Quebec. It is more than ten years before Quebec would be made an Episcopal Sea with the Jesuit Bishop Father (I)Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) as the first Bishop (1674). The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), moved into a tiny two-story stone house, twenty by thirty feet in size and shared with three priests, a valet-cook and a gardener. Bishop Laval's mission is to assert the supremacy of Church over State.

June 22: Montreal, birth (II)-Joseph Pichard son (I)-Jean Pichard and Louise Garnier

June 29: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Anne Cloutier, Métis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Métis, (1635-1699); 1st married November 11, 1681, Chateau Richer, Paschal Mercier; 2nd marriage 1697, Antoine Buteau.

July 7: L'Ange-Gardien, Quebec (I)-Louis Garnaud aka Garneau also Guerineau (1634-1698) and (I)-Jacques Jacquereau b-1628 acquired three arpents of land on the coast of Bowsprit (L'Ange-Gardiens, Quebec) and in 1660 entrusted land to (I)-Jacques Vesinat who married Marie Bourdon

July 8: Monsieur St. Denis departed Kebec for Tadousac by canoe. Antoine des Rosiers escaped from the Onontageronons, Iroquois near Lake Ontario, and arrived at Three Rivers.

August: Lespine set out from Kebec to hunt for seals at Isle Rouge. He would return in September with 220 seals. Sieur Maheu had, this month, set out from Kebec for the cod fishery at Isle Percee. This month 54 livres of beaver skins were stolen from the warehouse at Kebec.

August: The Coureurs des Bois (I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) and his brother-in-law (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Métis (1636-1710) returned to the south shore of Lake Superior to Chequamegon, Miles Lacs area of (Wisconsin).

August 1: Thirty three canoes of the Attikameg and Piskatang arrived to trade from inland, and 6 canoes of Sault (Ojibwa). They asked for some French to join them on their return home.

August 4: Quebec marriage (I)-Mathurin Gerbert et Gerber dit De La Fontier (1631-1687)
1st married Isabelle Targe b-1634
2nd married about 1671 Jeanne LeTellier

August 4: Quebec marriage (I)-Philippe Nepveu (1635-1721) to (II)-Denyse Sevestre Métis b-1628 daughter (I)-Charles Sevestre d-1657 and Marie Pichon Métis d-1661 Quebec
    (II)-Madeleine Nepveu et Neveu Métis b-1660 Quebec d-1697 Beauport married 1681 Quebec (II)-Jean Charles Cadieu d-1709
    (II)-Louis Nepveu Métis b-1662 Quebec
    (II)-Jacques Nepveu Métis b-1663 Quebec married 1695 (II)-Michelle Chauvin (1670-1722) killed by savages in Kaskakia
    (II)-Philippe Nepveu Métis (1665-1676) Quebec
    (II)-Marie Anne Jeanne Nepveu Métis (1667-1667) Quebec
    (II)-Anne Nepveu Métis (1668-1702) Quebec
    (II)-Marguerite Nepveu Métis (1669-1734) Quebec
    (II)-Marie Catherine Nepveu et Neveu Métis (1670-1715) Quebec married 1690 (I)-Guillaume Gaillard dit St Laurent (1669-1729)
    (II)-Charles Nepveu Métis b-1671 Quebec
    (II)-Jean Nepveu Métis (1673-1673) Quebec
    (II)-Jean Nepveu Métis b-1676 Quebec 1st married 1702 Montreal (II)-Marie Jeanne Passard (1681-1703); 2nd marriage 1704 Montreal (II)-Francoise LeGras b-1687

August 6: Six canoes of the Nation of Sault (Ojibwa) arrived at Three Rivers, traveling inland routes, and had taken five months to trade. They requested some Frenchmen accompany them on their return.

August 10: Three Rivers, Marie Sauvahesse a slave of Joseph Claude Boucher of Niverville, Three Rivers being harassed by wife and his/her mother a Marguerite Chastelin attacked the older woman with a knife. The slave retreated to the attic and hung herself..

September: L'Epine, a Frenchman, is killed at Three Rivers by the Iroquois. Monsieur Denis Mill on Cap Diamans began to grind grain. The ship St. Andre arrived at Kebec with 130 passengers. 9-10 died during the passage of contagious fever. The contagion was passed to those in the settlement and some died.

September 7: Marguerite Bourgeoys and Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) arrived at the Mission of the Mountain of Montreal with 62 men and 47 women settlers, to establish the congregation of Notre Dame.

September 12: Guillaume Routier is taken captive by the Iroquois while fishing eels at Cap Rouge.

September 14: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Soumande, Métis son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Métis, b-1637 

September 18: Quebec marriage (I)-Antoinette Durand daughter Guillaume Durand and Marguerite Le Tellier
1st married 1659 Quebec Marin Duval
2nd married 1661 Quebec Nicolas Delaunay

September 29: Quebec, birth (II)-Louise Picard daughter (I)-Jean Picard, d-1700, and (II)-Marie Caron, d-1660. 1st married October 4, 1673Ste Anne, Louis Gagne; 2nd marriage October 12, Cap St. Ignace, Guillaume Lemieux.

October 4/18: Quebec, birth/death (II)-Pierre Rousseau son (I)-Symphorien Rousseau (1633-1688) and Jeanne Sinnallon.

October 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Therese Poirier, died September 26, 1693, Quebec, daughter (I)-Vincent Poirier dit Bellepoire, (1628-1703) and (II)-Francoise Pinguet, died May 30, 1661, widow of Pierre Delauney: married January 21, 1681, Quebec, Mathieu Guay 

October 21: Quebec marriage (II)-Denis Guyon Métis d-1685 son (I)-Jean Guyon d-1663 and Mathurine Robin Métis; married (III)-Elizabeth Boucher Métis b-1646 daughter (II)-Francois Boucher Métis b-1626 and Florence Gareman b-1629
    (III)-Bertrand Guyon Métis (1662-1662) Quebec
    (III)-Jacques Guyon Métis (1663-1733) Quebec, married 1688 Quebec (II)-Louise Niel
    (III)-Francois Guyon Métis b-1666 Quebec
    (III)-Denis Guyon Métis b-1669 Quebec
    (III)-Marie Therese Guyon Métis b-1671 Quebec married 1687 Quebec (I)-Antoine De La Motre dit Cadillac b-1661
    (III)-Joseph Guyon Métis b-1673 Quebec
    (III)-Catherine Guyon Métis (1678-1781) Quebec
    (III)-Elizabeth Guyon Métis b-1679 Sorel
    (III)-Charles Louis Guyon Métis (1681-1782) Quebec
    (III)-Jeanne Catherine Guyon Métis (1683-1784) Quebec

October 26: Montreal, death (I)-Sylvestre Vacher dit St. Julien, b-1622, killed by the Iroquois.

October 27: Quebec, birth Louise Chevalier, Métis, died September 29, 1703, Beauport daughter Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Métis b-1643, Quebec: married Jacques Parent

November 4: Quebec, marriage (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere b-1630, died April 22, 1704 Ste Foye, Quebec son (I)-Louise Henri Pinguet; married (II)-Anne Chevalier, Métis, daughter (I)-Charles Chevalier who lived 1645 Trois Rivieres, married a sauvagesse?, but not named.

November 17: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Cordeau b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Métis (1638-1678) most likely daughter of one of the LaTour brothers.

November 18: Montreal marriage (I)-Simon Galbrun b-1635 d-1669 being assasinated in streets of Montreal married to Francois Du Verger (1636-1671) a Filles a Marier,epouse 1671 Montreal (I)-Jean Boutin dit Leveille
Francois Du Verger is charged September 7, 1671 for accessory to the murder of Simon Galbrun, [killed by Jean Boutin dit Leveille] and three abortions, killing one live birth 1671, she was condemned September 7, 1671 to be hung & strangled but she claimed to be two months pregnant.  November 1671 she was examined to be not pregnant.  Both Francoise and Jean Boutin dit Leveille were keel-hauled on a ship in Quebec harbor and their quartered bodies thrown in the river. 
    (II)-Jacques Simon Galbrun b-1661 Montreal
    (II)-Marie Galbrun b-1663 Montreal married 1680 Trois Rivieres Jean Compairon
    (II)-Anonyme Galbrun Montreal, aborted
    (II)-Anonyme Galbrun Montreal, aborted
    (II)-Jean Baptiste Galbrun (1666-1666) Montreal
    (II)-Catherine Galbrun b-1667 Montreal
    (II)-Anonyme Galbrun Montreal, aborted
    (II)-Marie Galbrun b-1670 Montreal 1st married Jean Charles Boiry; 2nd married 1705 I'Ilet Claude Salois
    (II)-Anonyme Galbrun b-1671 Montreal, birthed, murdered and hidden.

November 25: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Volant de St. Claude, Métis, daughter (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Métis. b-1636: married 1675, (III)-Pierre Noel Le Gardeur..

November 27: Trois Tivieres, Quebec, birth, (II)-Louis Lafleur dit Couc, Métis, voyageur, he was assassinated in 1709, going to Albany, son (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); 1st married 1681/3, Madeleine Sacokie, (Marie Sauvagesse); 2nd marriage January 7, 1687 St. Francois-du-Lac, Yamaska, Quebec Jeanne Quiquetig8k8e or Ouigatigocon, b-1656.

December: The Governor and Bishop of New France are in a childish struggle as to who has the higher place at social functions. They even squabble over who should be incensed first at Holy Mass.

December 31: Quebec, birth/death (II)-Jacques Rate, Métis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Métis, b-1645.

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